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Adding the Ecosystem

Kevin S. McCann

in Food Webs (MPB-50)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691134178
eISBN:
9781400840687
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691134178.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines how nutrient recycling and decomposition affect the dynamics and stability of food webs. It first reviews some of the existing theory on detritus and food web dynamics before ... More


The Nature of Nutrition: A Unifying Framework from Animal Adaptation to Human Obesity

Stephen J. Simpson and David Raubenheimer

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145655
eISBN:
9781400842803
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145655.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Nutrition has long been considered more the domain of medicine and agriculture than of the biological sciences, yet it touches and shapes all aspects of the natural world. The need for nutrients ... More


Mechanisms of Nutritional Regulation

Stephen J. Simpson and David Raubenheimer

in The Nature of Nutrition: A Unifying Framework from Animal Adaptation to Human Obesity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145655
eISBN:
9781400842803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145655.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter focuses on how animals are able to regulate their intake and use of multiple nutrients. To regulate the balance of nutrients eaten, an animal needs to assess the composition of available ... More


Procellariiform extinctions in the Holocene: threat processes and wider ecosystem-scale implications

R. Paul Scofield

in Holocene Extinctions

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199535095
eISBN:
9780191715754
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199535095.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The Procellariiformes — the order of oceanic tube-nosed seabirds that includes the albatrosses, petrels, and shearwaters — are an ancient group that has survived comparatively unchanged since the ... More


Biogeochemical processes in high-latitude lakes and rivers

W. Berry Lyons and Jacques C. Finlay

in Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199213887
eISBN:
9780191707506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213887.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

Polar aquatic ecosystems are excellent laboratories for biogeochemical research. The polar regions are among the least modified by human activities, so there are opportunities to study biogeochemical ... More


Phytoplankton and primary production

Michael P. Lizotte

in Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199213887
eISBN:
9780191707506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213887.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

The phytoplankton comprises a diverse array of photosynthetic organisms. The majority of polar lakes are classified as ultra-oligotrophic based on maximum chlorophyll concentrations. However, few ... More


IS GE FOOD RISKY TO EAT?

Pamela C. Ronald and Raoul W. Adamchak

in Tomorrow's Table: Organic Farming, Genetics, and the Future of Food

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195301755
eISBN:
9780199867196
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195301755.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter discusses the potential risk and benefits of GE. For most humans, all the essentials of life — food, family, and work have associated risks. Does GE technology have potential for saving ... More


Trade-Offs and Carry-Over Effects

Tony D. Williams

in Physiological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139821
eISBN:
9781400842797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139821.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology

This chapter first reviews the evidence for interactions between life-history stages, centering this around reproduction itself: the intention is to put reproduction in the context of the complete ... More


Food-Web Structure and Dynamics of East African Coral Reefs

Tim R. McClanahan

in Food Webs and the Dynamics of Marine Reefs

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195319958
eISBN:
9780199869596
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195319958.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter describes the oceanography, biogeography, and management of coral reef ecosystems of East Africa. The chapter focuses on the role of marine protected areas and fishing in controlling ... More


Nutrition and Darwin’s Entangled Bank

Stephen J. Simpson and David Raubenheimer

in The Nature of Nutrition: A Unifying Framework from Animal Adaptation to Human Obesity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145655
eISBN:
9781400842803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145655.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This introductory chapter expands on three important themes that form the backdrop of this book's study: nutrition touches and links all living things; nutrition is complex; and there have been ... More


The Geometry of Nutrition

Stephen J. Simpson and David Raubenheimer

in The Nature of Nutrition: A Unifying Framework from Animal Adaptation to Human Obesity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145655
eISBN:
9781400842803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145655.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter discusses the Geometric Framework (GF) for nutrition. GF satisfies the multiple-food-components requirement using a simple device known as a nutrient space. A nutrient space is a ... More


Applied Nutrition

Stephen J. Simpson and David Raubenheimer

in The Nature of Nutrition: A Unifying Framework from Animal Adaptation to Human Obesity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145655
eISBN:
9781400842803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145655.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter shows how the Geometric Framework has been applied to design nutritional regimes for agricultural and companion animals, and to manage the nutritional environment of endangered species. ... More


What Won’t Work: Tradeof-Blind Biotechnology

R. Ford Denison

in Darwinian Agriculture: How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139500
eISBN:
9781400842810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139500.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers the challenge of improving crop resource-use efficiency using biotechnology or traditional plant breeding. It argues that some of biotechnology's stated goals, such as more ... More


What Won’t Work: Misguided Mimicry of Natural Ecosystems

R. Ford Denison

in Darwinian Agriculture: How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139500
eISBN:
9781400842810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139500.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers four ideas—suggested by Wes Jackson and Jon Piper in the classic paper, “The necessary marriage between ecology and agriculture”—for how agriculture might attempt to mimic ... More


Freshwater community interactions and malaria

Eliška Rejmánková, John Grieco, Nicole Achee, Penny Masuoka, Kevin Pope, Donald Roberts, and Richard M. Higashi

in Disease Ecology: Community structure and pathogen dynamics

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567080
eISBN:
9780191717871
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567080.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

The incidence of malaria has recently increased in many parts of the tropics. This increase is due mainly to drug resistance and the failure of disease control measures. But changes in vector ... More


Nutrient cycling as an emergent property

David M. Wilkinson

in Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Arguments based on both in vitro and in silico models suggest that biogeochemical cycles will readily evolve on planets with life, along with many of the putative fundamental processes described in ... More


Agriculture: a mixed blessing

Denis J. Murphy

in People, Plants and Genes: The Story of Crops and Humanity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199207145
eISBN:
9780191708893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207145.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Although agriculture acted as a spur to many aspects of social and technological development, increasing reliance on a narrow range of food crops had many downsides that sometimes caused people to ... More


Mangrove trees and their environment

Peter Hogarth

in The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568704
eISBN:
9780191717536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568704.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter discusses how mangrove trees adapt to their environment. Topics covered include adaptations to waterlogged soil, coping with salt, the cost of survival, inorganic nutrients, reproductive ... More


Seagrasses and their environment

Peter Hogarth

in The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568704
eISBN:
9780191717536
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568704.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter discusses how seagrasses adapt to their environment. Topics covered include growth and structure, photosynthesis and respiration, salinity, nutrients, reproduction, propagule dispersal, ... More


Ecophysiological and biogeochemical responses to atmospheric change

Jeffrey Q. Chambers and Whendee L. Silver

in Tropical Forests and Global Atmospheric Change

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198567066
eISBN:
9780191717888
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567066.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

There are several atmospheric changes that may affect physiological and biogeochemical processes in old-growth tropical forests. Elevated CO2 is likely to directly influence numerous leaf-level ... More


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