## Core Cognition: Number

*Susan Carey*

### in The Origin of Concepts

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- September 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195367638
- eISBN:
- 9780199867349
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367638.003.0004
- Subject:
- Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter lays out the evidence for two distinct systems of core cognition with numerical content—analog magnitude representations of number and parallel individuation of small sets— contrasting ... More

## Behavioral Signatures of Numerical Cognition

*Elizabeth M. Brannon, Kerry E. Jordan, and Sarah M. Jones*

### in Primate Neuroethology

- Published in print:
- 2010
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780195326598
- eISBN:
- 9780199864904
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326598.003.0008
- Subject:
- Psychology, Neuropsychology, Evolutionary Psychology

The ability to represent number approximately has been documented in animals as diverse as lizards, rats, pigeons, ferrets, raccoons, dolphins, lemurs, monkeys, and apes. This chapter focuses on ... More

## Endangered Number Systems: Counting to Twenty on Your Toes

*K. David Harrison*

### in When Languages Die: The Extinction of the World's Languages and the Erosion of Human Knowledge

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- January 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780195181920
- eISBN:
- 9780199870622
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181920.003.0006
- Subject:
- Linguistics, Historical Linguistics

This chapter discusses that human languages, when counting, not only have different names for the numbers but also use a wide variety of mathematical strategies. It explores unusual counting systems ... More

## Pure Mathematics

*E. Brian Davies*

### in Science in the Looking Glass: What Do Scientists Really Know?

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- September 2008
- ISBN:
- 9780199219186
- eISBN:
- 9780191711695
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219186.003.0005
- Subject:
- Physics, History of Physics

This chapter seeks to demolish the myth that mathematics is uniquely free of controversy, and therefore a guaranteed source of objective and eternal knowledge. Topics discussed include the origins of ... More

## The Egyptian Number System

*Annette Imhausen*

### in Mathematics in Ancient Egypt: A Contextual History

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691117133
- eISBN:
- 9781400874309
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691117133.003.0003
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter describes the ancient Egyptian number system. The system can be described in modern terminology as a decimal system without positional (place-value) notation. The basis of the number ... More

## Certain Ancient Number Systems

*Joseph Mazur*

### in Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.003.0002
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses ancient number systems, beginning with the Babylonian system. Almost every history of early Western mathematics begins with the Babylonian conception of number, a so-called ... More

## Summary

*Annette Imhausen*

### in Mathematics in Ancient Egypt: A Contextual History

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691117133
- eISBN:
- 9781400874309
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691117133.003.0005
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter summarizes key discussions in chapters 1 to 3. Writing was developed in Egypt at the end of the fourth millennium BCE. Therefore, it is not surprising to find representations of numbers ... More

## Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

*Joseph Mazur*

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

While all of us regularly use basic mathematical symbols such as those for plus, minus, and equals, few of us know that many of these symbols weren't available before the sixteenth century. What did ... More

## The Indian Gift

*Joseph Mazur*

### in Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.003.0004
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses the legacy of Indian mathematics. With very few archaeological clues, the origins of the Indian numbers must rely on a small wealth of writing that survives almost exclusively ... More

## Silk and Royal Roads

*Joseph Mazur*

### in Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2018
- ISBN:
- 9780691173375
- eISBN:
- 9781400850112
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691173375.003.0003
- Subject:
- Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter discusses the important role played by the Silk and Royal roads in the spread of teaching and knowledge of philosophy, science, and mathematics during ancient times. The Silk Road was a ... More