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From Epistemic Expressivism to Epistemic Inferentialism

Matthew Chrisman

in Social Epistemology

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199577477
eISBN:
9780191595189
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199577477.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Language

Recent philosophical debate about the meaning of knowledge claims has largely centred on the question of whether epistemic claims are plausibly thought to be context sensitive. The default assumption ... More


Normative Concepts

Matti Eklund

in Choosing Normative Concepts

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198717829
eISBN:
9780191787331
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198717829.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

What is it for a concept to be normative? Some possible answers are explored and rejected, among them that a concept is normative if it ascribes a normative property. The positive answer defended is ... More


Law and Reason

Katja Maria Vogt

in Law, Reason, and the Cosmic City: Political Philosophy in the Early Stoa

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195320091
eISBN:
9780199869657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195320091.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy

It is argued that the two dominant ways of reconstructing the Stoic conception of law—as a set of rules (rules‐interpretation) or as identified with the perfect decision‐making of the sage ... More


Nietzsche’s Normative Theory? The Art and Skill of Living Well

Peter Railton

in Nietzsche, Naturalism, and Normativity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199583676
eISBN:
9780191745294
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583676.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

A satisfactory interpretation of Nietzsche's complex writings should help us see whether a coherent and distinctive normative theory is to be found there. At least four serious problems confront the ... More


The Paradigm of Law Enforcement

Nils Melzer

in Targeted Killing in International Law

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199533169
eISBN:
9780191714511
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199533169.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Public International Law

This chapter discusses the concept of law enforcement. The basic concept of law enforcement comprises all territorial and extraterritorial measures taken by a State to vertically impose public ... More


Normative Properties

Matti Eklund

in Choosing Normative Concepts

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198717829
eISBN:
9780191787331
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198717829.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

What is it for a property to be normative? Some possible answers are explored and rejected in this chapter, among them that a property is normative if it is ascribed by some normative concept. A ... More


The Pitfalls of ‘Reasons’

Ralph Wedgwood

in The Value of Rationality

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198802693
eISBN:
9780191841972
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198802693.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Many philosophers working on normative issues follow the ‘Reasons First’ program. According to this program, the concept of a ‘normative reason’ for an action or an attitude is the most fundamental ... More


Authoritatively Normative Concepts

Tristram McPherson

in Oxford Studies in Metaethics 13

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198823841
eISBN:
9780191862625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198823841.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter offers an analysis of the authoritatively normative concept PRACTICAL OUGHT that appeals to the constitutive norms for the activity of non-arbitrary selection. It argues that this ... More


The Triviality Objection

Samuel Scheffler

in On What Matters: Volume Two

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199572816
eISBN:
9780191809873
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199572816.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter is about Triviality Objection. It first examines normative concepts and natural properties, including the concept of the natural property that makes acts right and the concept of being ... More


Choosing Normative Concepts

Matti Eklund

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780198717829
eISBN:
9780191787331
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198717829.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Theorists working on metaethics and the nature of normativity typically study goodness, rightness, what ought to be done, etc. In their investigations they employ and consider our actual normative ... More


The Inherent Normativity of Functions in Biology and Technology

Maarten Franssen

in Functions in Biological and Artificial Worlds: Comparative Philosophical Perspectives

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262113212
eISBN:
9780262255271
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262113212.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

This chapter examines the role that is played in the debate on what is and what is not the adequate theory of function, by the claim that “function” is an inherently normative concept. It explores ... More


Species Concepts and Natural Goodness

Judith K. Crane and Ronald Sandler

in Carving Nature at Its Joints: Natural Kinds in Metaphysics and Science

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015936
eISBN:
9780262298780
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015936.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter defends a pluralist understanding of species on which a normative species concept is viable and can support natural goodness evaluations. The central question here is thus: Since ... More


An Antinomy in Kelsen’s Pure Theory of Law (1990)<sup>*</sup>

Eugenio Bulygin

in Essays in Legal Philosophy

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780198729365
eISBN:
9780191796272
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198729365.003.0016
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

Scholars remain divided over the exact meaning of the idea of validity, despite its central role in Kelsen’s Pure Theory of Law. Ross has pointed out that Kelsen faces serious difficulties owing to ... More


Gibbard’s Offer to Non-Naturalists

Derek Parfit

in On What Matters: Volume Three

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198778608
eISBN:
9780191853487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198778608.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter discusses the claim that, if it were true that we ought to do something just when this act would maximize net pleasure, the concepts ought and would maximize net pleasure would refer to ... More


Nietzsche’s Mountain

Derek Parfit

in On What Matters: Volume Three

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
December 2017
ISBN:
9780198778608
eISBN:
9780191853487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198778608.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter discusses the convergence claim. This claim argues that, if everyone knew all of the relevant non-normative facts, used the same normative concepts, understood and carefully reflected on ... More


Oxford Studies in Metaethics 13

Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.)

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198823841
eISBN:
9780191862625
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198823841.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This series is devoted to original philosophical work in the foundations of ethics. It provides an annual selection of much of the best new scholarship being done in the field. Its broad purview ... More


Conceptual Engineering without Bedrock and without Fixed Points

Herman Cappelen

in Fixing Language: An Essay on Conceptual Engineering

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198814719
eISBN:
9780191852404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198814719.003.0018
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter considers whether there are any limits to conceptual engineering, developing the idea that there are no safe spaces from conceptual change. First, it considers Chalmers’s argument for ... More


The Matter of High Words: Naturalism, Normativity, and the Postwar Sage

Robert Chodat

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780190682156
eISBN:
9780190682187
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190682156.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, 20th-century and Contemporary Literature

Ambitious scientific accounts of human thought and behavior have been a mainstay of American intellectual culture since World War II. But if such theories are true, what is the status of our highest ... More


Postscript to the Second Edition: Rethinking exclusionary reasons

Joseph Raz

in Practical Reason and Norms

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198268345
eISBN:
9780191683503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198268345.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter reassesses the credentials of the book's central new idea concerning practical reason. That idea is of the importance of exclusionary reasons for the understanding of some rules and ... More


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