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Physicalism: The Philosophical Foundations

Jeffrey Poland

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198249801
eISBN:
9780191681202
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198249801.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, Philosophy of Mind

Physicalism is a programme for building a unified system of knowledge based on the view that everything is a manifestation of the physical aspects of existence. This book presents an exploration of ... More


Levels of Reality

John Heil

in From an Ontological Point of View

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199259748
eISBN:
9780191597657
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199259747.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Chapter 2 Levels of RealityMany philosophers, especially self‐described ‘non‐reductive materialists’, embrace the idea that reality is hierarchical: the world comprises levels of being. Examples of ... More


Explanation, Emergence, and Causality: Comments on Crane

Michele Di Francesco

in Emergence in Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199583621
eISBN:
9780191723483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583621.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

Tim Crane's ‘Cosmic Hermeneutics vs. Emergence: The Challenge of the Explanatory Gap’ claims that non‐reductive physicalism must either close the explanatory gap, addressing the challenge famously ... More


Emergent Causation and Property Causation

Paul Noordhof

in Emergence in Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199583621
eISBN:
9780191723483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583621.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The chapter defends the application, and verdicts of a counterfactual theory of causation, to the question of property causation. In particular, the challenges that non‐reductive physicalism and ... More


Emergence and Downward Causation

Cynthia Macdonald and Graham Macdonald

in Emergence in Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199583621
eISBN:
9780191723483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583621.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The principal charge against any emergentist account of the nature of mind is that it leads to incoherence because it is committed to ‘downward’ causation, and it is this charge that this chapter ... More


Mind and Mentality

John Heil

in The Universe As We Find It

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199596201
eISBN:
9780191741876
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199596201.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, General

The mental–physical distinction is scrutinized, and the possibility (defended by Spinoza and by Davidson) that the distinction is not a ‘real distinction’, but one of conception only, is defended. ... More


Reduction, Kinds, and Essences

John Heil

in The Universe As We Find It

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199596201
eISBN:
9780191741876
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199596201.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology, General

The concept of reduction is discussed in the context of a discussion of the origins of ‘non-reductive physicalism’. Reduction is identified as a relation among terms, or predicates, or theories, not ... More


Ethical Non-Naturalism and the Metaphysics of Supervenience

Tristram McPherson

in Oxford Studies in Metaethics Volume 7

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199653492
eISBN:
9780191741661
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199653492.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

It is widely accepted that the ethical supervenes on the natural, where this is roughly the claim that it is impossible for two circumstances to be identical in all natural respects, but different in ... More


Nonreductive Physicalism or Emergent Dualism? The Argument from Mental Causation

Timothy O'Connor and John Ross Churchill

in The Waning of Materialism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199556182
eISBN:
9780191721014
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556182.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter presents a version of the causal exclusion challenge to non-reductive physicalism, one that is explicitly directed at non-reductive physicalists who adopt an ontology of causal powers. ... More


Substance Dualism: A Non‐Cartesian Approach

E. J. Lowe

in The Waning of Materialism

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199556182
eISBN:
9780191721014
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556182.003.0022
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Substance dualism in the philosophy of mind is, naturally enough, commonly thought of on a Cartesian model, according to which it is a dualism of two radically different kinds of substance, one (the ... More


Being Reduced: New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation

Jakob Hohwy and Jesper Kallestrup (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199211531
eISBN:
9780191705977
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211531.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

There are few more unsettling philosophical questions than this: ‘what happens in attempts to reduce some properties to some other more fundamental properties?’ Reflection on this question inevitably ... More


Introduction

Jakob Hohwy

in Being Reduced: New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199211531
eISBN:
9780191705977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211531.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This introductory chapter reviews the current debate on reduction and reductive explanation. It presents the standard accounts in the field and shows how they connect with the cutting-edge ... More


The Exclusion Problem, the Determination Relation, and Contrastive Causation *

Peter Menzies

in Being Reduced: New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199211531
eISBN:
9780191705977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211531.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter critically examines the causal exclusion argument against non-reductive physicalism. It argues that a contrastive account of causation falsifies the exclusion principle when it is ... More


Distinctions in Distinction *

Daniel Stoljar

in Being Reduced: New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199211531
eISBN:
9780191705977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211531.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter begins with a putative puzzle between non-reductive physicalism according to which psychological properties are distinct from, yet metaphysically necessitated by, physical properties, ... More


Exclusion Again *

Karen Bennett

in Being Reduced: New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199211531
eISBN:
9780191705977
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211531.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

This chapter maintains that the non-reductive physicalist's best strategy for avoiding the causal exclusion argument, as defended in Bennett (2003), is unavailable to dualists. One strategy for ... More


Action: Causal Theories and Explanatory Relevance

William Child

in Causality, Interpretation, and the Mind

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198236252
eISBN:
9780191597206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198236255.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

If mental causal explanations are grounded in facts about physical causes and effects, and if there are no psychophysical laws, how can we avoid the conclusion that the mental is causally, and ... More


Mental Causation, or Something Near Enough

Barry Loewer

in Meaning, Mind, and Matter: Philosophical Essays

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199580781
eISBN:
9780191595264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199580781.003.0015
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Mind

Jaegwon Kim famously argues that no form of “non‐reductive physicalism,” including Davidson's anomalism monism, can provide an adequate account of mental causation. His argument depends on a ... More


The Non-Reductive Theory

Paul Faulkner

in Knowledge on Trust

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199589784
eISBN:
9780191725517
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199589784.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

According to the non-reductive theory of testimony, an audience is entitled to believe testimony, other things being equal. And testimony is distinctive as an epistemic source in that it transmits ... More


Trust and the Uptake of Testimony

Paul Faulkner

in Knowledge on Trust

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199589784
eISBN:
9780191725517
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199589784.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter argues that the non-reductive theory of testimony suffers two failings. First, the idea that we have an entitlement to believe testimony gets things wrong descriptively. Either it ... More


Introduction

Rowland Stout

in The Inner Life of a Rational Agent: In Defence of Philosophical Behaviourism

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780748623433
eISBN:
9780748652501
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Edinburgh University Press
DOI:
10.3366/edinburgh/9780748623433.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This introductory chapter first sets out the purpose of the book, which is to present a new theory of the mind, but a theory that has something in common with an old and discredited theory: the ... More


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