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The Emergence of a Scientific Culture: Science and the Shaping of Modernity 1210-1685

Stephen Gaukroger

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199296446
eISBN:
9780191711985
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199296446.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

The West's sense of itself, its relation to its past, and its sense of its future have been profoundly altered since the 17th century as cognitive values generally have gradually come to be shaped ... More


The Unity of Knowledge

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Emergence of a Scientific Culture: Science and the Shaping of Modernity 1210-1685

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199296446
eISBN:
9780191711985
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199296446.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

One of the driving ideas behind many of the various movements in 17th-century natural philosophy was that of the unity of knowledge. There were two principal ways of establishing this in its most ... More


The Interpretation of Nature and the Origins of Physico‐Theology

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Emergence of a Scientific Culture: Science and the Shaping of Modernity 1210-1685

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199296446
eISBN:
9780191711985
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199296446.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

There was always a lack of fit between natural philosophy and natural history in the Aristotelian tradition, and the latter was better adapted to the Christian idea of the universe as something ... More


The Construction of a New World Picture

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199594931
eISBN:
9780191595745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199594931.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries there was a concern to reconcile Christianity, the traditional humanistic disciplines, and natural philosophy. There are two principal ways in ... More


Thomson and Tait: The Treatise on Natural Philosophy

Raymond Flood

in Kelvin: Life, Labours and Legacy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199231256
eISBN:
9780191710803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231256.003.0011
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter focuses on Lord Kelvin's collaboration with Peter Guthrie Tait. Probably the most influential legacy of their collaboration on ‘heavy mathematical work’ was the production in 1867 of The ... More


Hume's ‘Fork’: Scepticism and Natural Religion

Ben Brice

in Coleridge and Scepticism

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199290253
eISBN:
9780191710483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199290253.003.0003
Subject:
Literature, 19th-century Literature and Romanticism

David Hume was brought up as a Calvinist, and studied Newtonian physics and methodology at Edinburgh University and beyond. In An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1748) and his posthumously ... More


From Experimental Philosophy to Empiricism

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199594931
eISBN:
9780191595745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199594931.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

The chapter explores the development of the thought of John Locke. It begins with his early medical concerns, showing how these became connected with the issue of the standing of ‘experimental ... More


A Secret of Nature? Descartes and the Philosophers

Richard Scholar

in The Je-Ne-Sais-Quoi in Early Modern Europe: Encounters with a Certain Something

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199274406
eISBN:
9780191706448
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199274406.003.0002
Subject:
Literature, European Literature

It is commonly said in the early modern period that elusive qualities draw natural bodies together. This chapter offers a critical history of attempts to explain such preternatural forces in natural ... More


 Reason and Authority in the Middle Ages: The Latin West and Islam

Edward Grant

in Scientific Values and Civic Virtues

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195172256
eISBN:
9780199835546
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195172256.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Scientific values embodied in Aristotle’s natural philosophy and the civic virtues embedded in his practical sciences (ethics and politics), were used to improve the quality of government in the 14th ... More


Conclusion: William Petty's Political Science

Ted McCormick

in William Petty: And the Ambitions of Political Arithmetic

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199547890
eISBN:
9780191720529
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547890.003.0010
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History, Economic History

The conclusion draws together several of the main themes of the book, arguing that political arithmetic can only be understood properly from the manuscripts he circulated in his lifetime, and in the ... More


British geography 1500–1900: an imprecise review

David N. Livingstone

in A Century of British Geography

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197262863
eISBN:
9780191734076
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197262863.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Population and Demography

This chapter presents an impressionistic, and thus imprecise, sketch of the history of British geography from 1500 to 1900. Over these 400 years, British geography has assumed many different forms in ... More


Hume's General Rules and the ‘Chief Business of Philosophers’

R. W. Serjeantson

in Impressions of Hume

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199256525
eISBN:
9780191719707
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199256525.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter concerns Hume's account in Book I of the Treatise of Human Nature (1739) of the operation of ‘general rules’. It considers their relation to conceptions of regularity, probability, ... More


Introduction

Peter R. Anstey

in John Locke and Natural Philosophy

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199589777
eISBN:
9780191725487
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199589777.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter provides an introductory discussion of the nature and scope of early modern natural philosophy, including the distinction between Experimental and Speculative natural philosophy and the ... More


Platonism in early modern natural philosophy:: The case of Leibniz and Conway

Christia Mercer

in Neoplatonism and the Philosophy of Nature

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199693719
eISBN:
9780191739019
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199693719.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Ancient Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Platonism played a much more significant part in the development of the new natural philosophy in the seventeenth century than has generally been understood. This paper displays the crucial role that ... More


Descartes: An Intellectual Biography

Stephen Gaukroger

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198237242
eISBN:
9780191597480
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198237243.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

Stephen Gaukroger traces the development of Descartes's thought in the social, religious, and intellectual context of seventeenth‐century Europe. Gaukroger describes Descartes's upbringing and his ... More


The Physics of Duns Scotus: The Scientific Context of a Theological Vision

Richard Cross

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198269748
eISBN:
9780191683787
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198269748.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion, Theology

Duns Scotus, along with Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham, was one of the three most talented and influential of the medieval schoolmen, and a highly original and ... More


Science without God: Natural Laws and Christian Beliefs

Ronald L. Numbers

in Science and Christianity in Pulpit and Pew

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195320374
eISBN:
9780199851379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195320374.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, History of Christianity

This chapter traces the history of what has come to be known as “methodological naturalism”, the bane of intelligent design advocates, who see it as an agent of atheism. Both Christians and skeptics, ... More


The Natural Philosophy of Angels

Raymond Joad

in Milton's Angels: The Early-Modern Imagination

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199560509
eISBN:
9780191701801
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199560509.003.0011
Subject:
Literature, Milton Studies, 16th-century and Renaissance Literature

This chapter discusses the impact of natural philosophy on views of angels, and the ways in which angels constituted thought experiments in natural philosophy. Milton's angels are objects of ... More


Plato’s Sun and Descartes’s Stove: Contemplation and Control in Cartesian Philosophy

JOHN COTTINGHAM

in Rationalism, Platonism and God: A Symposium on Early Modern Philosophy

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264201
eISBN:
9780191734670
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264201.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter examines contemplation and control in Cartesian philosophy and sets out some of the Platonic strands in Descartes’ cosmology, metaphysics and moral theory. It argues that Descartes’ ... More


Discussing Chemistry and Steam: The Minutes of a Coffee House Philosophical Society 1780-1787

Trevor H. Levere and Gerard L'E Turner (eds)

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198515302
eISBN:
9780191705694
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515302.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This book contains an edition of the Minutes of the Coffee House Philosophical Society 1780-1787, as transcribed by William Nicholson, the secretary to the society. The 1780s were exciting years for ... More


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