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Prometheus Unbound: releasing the constraints on natural selection

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The evolution of asexual organisms in laboratory microcosms is constrained by the lack of genetic exchange and by isolation from the rest of the world. When these constraints are relaxed, the rate of ... More


The Group Selection Controversy

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines the notorious issue of group selection in behavioural ecology, one of the mainstays of the traditional levels of selection debate. The history of the group selection controversy ... More


 What Is Evolutionary Biology and Where Is It Coming From?

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter describes the Darwin-Wallace theory of evolution by natural selection. In particular, it explains the notion of fitness, which underlies the concepts of descent with modification and the ... More


Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Graham Bell

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Adaptation is caused by selection continually winnowing the genetic variation created by mutation. In the last ten years, our knowledge of how selection operates on populations in the field and in ... More


Domestication

Ádám Miklósi

in Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199295852
eISBN:
9780191711688
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199295852.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter deals with one of the most long-debated question about how dogs became domesticated. Traditional understanding of this process was based on the finding of archaeologists that are, ... More


Simple selection

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The action of selection is based on a few simple principles that are general to all self-replicating systems, and which constitute a distinct branch of science. This introductory chapter presents a ... More


The genetic and ecological context of selection

Graham Bell

in Selection: The Mechanism of Evolution

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198569725
eISBN:
9780191717741
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter gives some quantitative information about the rates of genetic and environmental deterioration. The first section in this chapter is about history, chance, and necessity, and includes ... More


IS GE FOOD RISKY TO EAT?

Pamela C. Ronald and Raoul W. Adamchak

in Tomorrow's Table: Organic Farming, Genetics, and the Future of Food

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195301755
eISBN:
9780199867196
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195301755.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter discusses the potential risk and benefits of GE. For most humans, all the essentials of life — food, family, and work have associated risks. Does GE technology have potential for saving ... More


Evolutionary genetics and the emergence of SARS Coronavirus

Edward C. Holmes and Andrew Rambaut

in SARS: A case study in emerging infections

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568193
eISBN:
9780191718175
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568193.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

RNA viruses experience rates of mutation that are some six orders of magnitude higher than those seen in eukaryotes, which undoubtedly gives them great adaptability. Paradoxically, these mutation ... More


Evolutionary Dynamics of Viruses or Microbes, but Not Both

Joshua S. Weitz

in Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161549
eISBN:
9781400873968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161549.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the evolutionary dynamics of viruses. Preexisting variation in host phenotypes include variants with different levels of susceptibility to viruses, including complete ... More


Coevolutionary Dynamics of Viruses and Microbes

Joshua S. Weitz

in Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161549
eISBN:
9781400873968
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161549.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter discusses coevolutionary dynamics of viruses and microbes. Virus mutation and host mutations occur rapidly, so much so that new virus and host mutants are expected to arise on timescales ... More


Hereditary hemochromatosis: population screening for gene mutations

Diana B. Petitti

in Human Genome Epidemiology, 2nd Edition: Building the evidence for using genetic information to improve health and prevent disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195398441
eISBN:
9780199776023
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195398441.003.0032
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Hemochromatosis encompasses issues of importance to basic scientists, clinical researchers, clinicians, epidemiologists, public health professionals, and policy makers. Understanding its history, the ... More


Imperial botany and the early scientific breeders

Denis J. Murphy

in People, Plants and Genes: The Story of Crops and Humanity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199207145
eISBN:
9780191708893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207145.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

The expansion of the British and Dutch mercantile empires from the 17th century was accompanied by a renewal of the old Babylonian concept of Imperial Botany, now made all the more effective by a new ... More


Fallible Design: Protein-Coding DNA Sequences

John C. Avise

in Inside the Human Genome: A Case for Non-Intelligent Design

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195393439
eISBN:
9780199775415
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195393439.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter addresses the history and current state of knowledge about human inborn errors of metabolism. Mutations in protein‐coding genes slaughter or maim countless individuals (especially ... More


Negative Selection and the Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution

Norman A. Johnson

in Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195306750
eISBN:
9780199790203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306750.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Natural selection is not the only evolutionary “force” that can alter frequencies of genetic variants; random genetic drift (a sampling process) persistently changes the gene pool of populations, ... More


Case, Agreement, and Mutation

Ian G. Roberts

in Principles and Parameters in a VSO Language: A Case Study in Welsh

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195168211
eISBN:
9780199788453
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168211.003.0003
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology

This chapter attempts to find the corollaries of the parameter values responsible for the movements identified as underlying VSO order in Chapter 1. A comparison with the behaviour of subject clitics ... More


Lessons from haemoglobin

Julian C. Knight

in Human Genetic Diversity: Functional Consequences for Health and Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199227693
eISBN:
9780191711015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227693.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

Study of genetic variation at the globin genes has provided a series of fundamental insights the nature and extent of genetic diversity and its functional consequences. This chapter provides a primer ... More


Pathogenic cascades and brain dysfunction

Steven U. Walkley

in Lysosomal Disorders of the Brain: Recent Advances in Molecular and Cellular Pathogenesis and Treatment

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198508786
eISBN:
9780191723803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508786.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

Lysosomal diseases begin quite simply as single gene mutations that affect the function of one protein. This protein may be an enzyme critical in the degradative action of the lysosomal system or in ... More


Primary defects in lysosomal enzymes

Bryan G. Winchester

in Lysosomal Disorders of the Brain: Recent Advances in Molecular and Cellular Pathogenesis and Treatment

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198508786
eISBN:
9780191723803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508786.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter begins with a discussion of the molecular genetics of lysosomal enzyme deficiencies. It then discusses the relation of mutations to the structure and function of lysosomal enzymes, and ... More


Interneuronal Variability: Plasticity and Regulation

Ivan Soltesz

in Diversity in the Neuronal Machine: Order and Variability in Interneuronal Microcircuits

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195177015
eISBN:
9780199864713
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177015.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic, Techniques

This chapter shows that somatic mutations in the brain may be more frequent than previously believed, and they may result in substantial alterations in synaptic functions involved in learning and ... More


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