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Avian Flight

John J. Videler

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199299928
eISBN:
9780191714924
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299928.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology

Bird flight has always intrigued mankind. This book provides an up-to-date account of the existing knowledge on the subject, offering new insights and challenges some established views. A brief ... More


Current Methods in Muscle Physiology: Advantages, Problems and Limitations

Haruo Sugi (ed.)

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523970
eISBN:
9780191724480
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523970.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Despite extensive physiological, biochemical, and structural studies, the mechanisms of muscle contraction operating in living muscle fibres are still not clearly understood. This book aims to ... More


The Biomechanics of Movement Control

Walter Herzog

in Motor Control: Theories, Experiments, and Applications

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195395273
eISBN:
9780199863518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395273.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The control of joint movements through muscles represents a mathematically redundant problem: that is, there are more muscles than are strictly required for a given task. However, despite this ... More


Basic neuromuscular properties

Daniel Kernell

in The Motoneurone and its Muscle Fibres

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198526551
eISBN:
9780191723896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526551.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This is a tutorial chapter, mainly aiming to introduce the neuromuscular system. Treated items include basic aspects of skeletal muscle and peripheral axon physiology, principles of sensory and motor ... More


The bird flight engine

John J. Videler

in Avian Flight

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199299928
eISBN:
9780191714924
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299928.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology

Movements of the skeleton of a starling in flight visualized with high speed X-ray film techniques provide 3-D insight on internal wing beat dynamics. The timing of electrical activities (EMGs) of ... More


Evolutionary Development and Anatomy of the Hand

Lynette A. Jones and Susan J. Lederman

in Human Hand Function

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195173154
eISBN:
9780199786749
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195173154.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter considers the evolutionary development of the hand within the context of changes in the structure and function of primate hands. The differences between modern human and nonhuman primate ... More


Short-term plasticity: fatigue and potentiation

Daniel Kernell

in The Motoneurone and its Muscle Fibres

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198526551
eISBN:
9780191723896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526551.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The functional properties of neurones, synapses, and muscles often change as a result of preceding use. In the short term (minutes to hours), such changes are typically rather rapidly reversible and ... More


Denervation and reinnervation

Daniel Kernell

in The Motoneurone and its Muscle Fibres

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198526551
eISBN:
9780191723896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526551.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter is concerned with the slow processes and cellular adaptations taking place after the transection of motor axons. For axotomized motoneurones, changes occur in their morphology, membrane ... More


Long-term plasticity

Daniel Kernell

in The Motoneurone and its Muscle Fibres

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198526551
eISBN:
9780191723896
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526551.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter deals with long-term (weeks, months) changes in the properties of motoneurones and muscle fibres after disuse or after various patterns of enhanced activity. In voluntary motor activity ... More


Intramembrane Charge Movements in Striated Muscle

Christopher L.-H. Huang

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198577492
eISBN:
9780191724190
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198577492.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This book provides a review of developments made in the understanding of cellular activation phenomena in striated muscle. Basic physical, mathematical, and physiological principles are covered. The ... More


The Motoneurone and its Muscle Fibres

Daniel Kernell

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198526551
eISBN:
9780191723896
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526551.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This book presents a summary of knowledge concerning somatic motoneurones, the cells which link the central nervous system to the skeletal muscles. There are two functional kinds of such ... More


Dragonfly flight performance: a model system for biomechanics, physiological genetics, and animal competitive behaviour

James H. Marden

in Dragonflies and Damselflies: Model Organisms for Ecological and Evolutionary Research

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199230693
eISBN:
9780191710889
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230693.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Animal Biology

Adult dragonflies are heavily dependent on their flight muscles and flight ability for nearly all of their adult activities. This chapter reviews research that presents dragonflies as model organisms ... More


Respiratory muscle function in breathlessness

Michael I. Polkey

in Dyspnoea in Advanced Disease: A guide to clinical management

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780198530039
eISBN:
9780191730450
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530039.003.0008
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

This chapter discusses the function of respiratory muscles and their interaction with the respiratory system in health and disease. Dyspnoea generally occurs when the load on the respiratory muscle ... More


Decomposing Muscle Activity in Motor TasksMethods and Interpretation

Lena H. Ting and Stacie A. Chvatal

in Motor Control: Theories, Experiments, and Applications

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195395273
eISBN:
9780199863518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395273.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter examines methodologies for dimensional analysis and linear decomposition of multivariate data sets, and discusses their implicit hypotheses and interpretations for muscle coordination of ... More


The Pharmacology of Vascular Smooth Muscle

C. J. Garland and J. A. Angus (eds)

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192623874
eISBN:
9780191724671
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192623874.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This book provides an understanding of how events at the cellular level impact on the cardiovascular system as a whole. Advances in knowledge are highlighted and all the themes are presented from the ... More


The Neurology of Autism

Mary Coleman (ed.)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195182224
eISBN:
9780199786701
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182224.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This book uses the tools of neurological analysis to address a number of major questions that have arisen in the study of autism. The answers it presents have important implications for the ... More


The False Promise

Phillip Brown, Hugh Lauder, and David Ashton

in The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199731688
eISBN:
9780199944125
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199731688.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Occupations, Professions, and Work

This chapter shows how the neoliberal opportunity bargain of individual freedom and national prosperity was supposed to unfold. It first examines the transition from muscle power to brain power, ... More


Myotome Studies

Jay A. Liveson and Dong M. Ma

in Laboratory Reference for Clinical Neurophysiology

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195129243
eISBN:
9780199847792
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195129243.003.0024
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

The strategy of the electromyographic test of muscles is based on anatomic sampling. Each muscle examined represents a specific peripheral nerve, and usually several nerve roots. Based on the ... More


Relationship between Force and Cross-Sectional Area of Postcervical Muscles in Man: Influence of Variations in the Morphology of the Neck

Marie-Anne Mayoux-Benhamou, Marc Wybier, Jacques Patrick Barbet, Sylvain Labbé, and Michel Revel

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0020
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Neck muscles have both dynamic and static functionalities, since they move the head in all directions and since they also have a postural role as antagonists of gravity. The static function depends ... More


Significance of Muscle Proprioceptive and Vestibulospinal Reflexes in the Control of Human Posture

Michael Trippel, Gerhard A. Horstmann, and Volker Dietz

in The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195068207
eISBN:
9780199847198
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0088
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The vestibular system plays an important role in the stabilization of human stance. The purpose of this study is to clarify which receptors and mechanisms are involved in the regulation of posture. ... More


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