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Double-Effect Reasoning: Doing Good and Avoiding Evil

T. A. Cavanaugh

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199272198
eISBN:
9780191604157
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199272190.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

Consequentialists oppose while absolutists and deontologists rely upon double-effect reasoning (DER) to address hard cases in which good inextricably binds with evil (such as destroying a legitimate ... More


A Framework for the Psychology of Norms

Chandra Sekhar Sripada and Stephen Stich

in The Innate Mind: Volume 2: Culture and Cognition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2007
ISBN:
9780195310139
eISBN:
9780199871209
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310139.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

Human social life is regulated by an extensive network of informal social rules and principles often called norms. This chapter offers an account of the psychological mechanisms and processes ... More


Agency and the Imputation of Consequences in Kant's Ethics

Andrews Reath

in Agency and Autonomy in Kant's Moral Theory: Selected Essays

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199288830
eISBN:
9780191603648
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199288836.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter analyzes the structure and underlying rationale of Kant's principles of imputation (Zurechnung), with particular concern for his principles governing the moral imputation of bad ... More


Moral Norms and Co‐Operation

Jean‐Marie Baland and Jean‐Philippe Platteau

in Halting Degradation of Natural Resources: Is There a Role for Rural Communities?

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
January 2005
ISBN:
9780198290612
eISBN:
9780191601613
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198290616.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter analyses the role of moral norms in shaping individual preferences and expectations in a way that is conducive to cooperation. It covers norms as constraints on the pursuit of ... More


Two Theories About the Cognitive Architecture Underlying Morality

Daniel Kelly and Stephen Stich

in Collected Papers, Volume 2: Knowledge, Rationality, and Morality, 1978-2010

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199733477
eISBN:
9780199949823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199733477.003.0014
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter compares two theories about the cognitive architecture underlying morality. One theory, proposed by Sripada and Stich (2006), posits an interlocking set of innate mechanisms that ... More


The Evolution of Moral Norms

Dennis L. Krebs

in The Origins of Morality: An Evolutionary Account

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199778232
eISBN:
9780199897261
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199778232.003.0032
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter contains an account of how culturally universal and culturally specific moral norms evolved. Norms evolve when members of groups make rules to formalize agreements about how they should ... More


Some Complex Moral Ideas

James Griffin

in Value Judgement: Improving Our Ethical Beliefs

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198752318
eISBN:
9780191597541
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198752318.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Turns to more complex moral norms than the ‘simple’ ones discussed in Ch. 5: e.g. the prohibition ‘Don’t deliberately kill the innocent’ and the injunction ‘save more people's lives rather than ... More


Political and Moral Legitimacy: A Normative Theory of Health Policy Decision‐Making

Jennifer Prah Ruger

in Health and Social Justice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199559978
eISBN:
9780191721489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559978.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Many countries, including the United States, lack consensus about the core ethical principles concerning health and health care, beyond a market‐based approach to resource allocation. This chapter ... More


Battling for Truth in the Beloved Community

Rebekah L. Miles

in The Bonds of Freedom: Feminist Theology and Christian Realism

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195144161
eISBN:
9780199834495
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195144163.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy of Religion

An examination is made of Sharon Welch's political realist position. Welch, in contrast to Ruether, locates moral norms and the divine in particular human communities, and all moral claims are ... More


Empowering: Conferring the Power to Posit and Apply Norms

Hans Kelsen

in General Theory of Norms

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198252177
eISBN:
9780191681363
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198252177.003.0026
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

The normative function of empowering means: conferring on an individual the power to posit and apply norms. A moral norm empowers a father to issue commands binding on his child. A legal norm ... More


Health and Social Justice

Jennifer Prah Ruger

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199559978
eISBN:
9780191721489
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559978.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

Envision a society in which all people have the ability to achieve the central health capabilities of avoiding premature death and escapable morbidity, and where everyone has comprehensive health ... More


Moral and social norms

Geoffrey Brennan, Lina Eriksson, Robert E. Goodin, and Nicholas Southwood

in Explaining Norms

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199654680
eISBN:
9780191747960
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654680.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter examines two kinds of non-formal norms: moral norms and social norms. Paradigmatic examples of moral norms include the norms that exist in most societies forbidding murder, rape, and ... More


Recognizing Human Ambiguity

Richard Crouter

in Reinhold Niebuhr: On Politics, Religion, and Christian Faith

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195379679
eISBN:
9780199869169
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195379679.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Chapter 3 shows how St. Paul, Augustine, and Kierkegaard inform Niebuhr’s Christian anthropology by insisting on our human ambiguity and sinful nature, the ways that self-interest constantly works ... More


Introduction

Jennifer Prah Ruger

in Health and Social Justice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199559978
eISBN:
9780191721489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559978.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

The introduction summarizes the theoretical foundations of the health capability paradigm and distinguishes it from prevailing frameworks, which represent clear deficiencies in thinking and action ... More


The Evolution of a Sense of Morality

Dennis L. Krebs

in Creating Consilience: Integrating the Sciences and the Humanities

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199794393
eISBN:
9780199919338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794393.003.0017
Subject:
Philosophy, General, Philosophy of Science

Refinements in Darwin's theory of the origin of morality create a framework equipped to organize and integrate relevant contemporary theory and research. Morality originated in social instincts or ... More


Explaining Norms

Geoffrey Brennan, Lina Eriksson, Robert E. Goodin, and Nicholas Southwood

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199654680
eISBN:
9780191747960
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654680.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

Norms are a pervasive yet mysterious feature of social life. This book aims to grapple with some of the many mysteries, offering an account of norms: what they are; how and why they emerge, persist, ... More


Norm following

Geoffrey Brennan, Lina Eriksson, Robert E. Goodin, and Nicholas Southwood

in Explaining Norms

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199654680
eISBN:
9780191747960
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654680.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter considers how to make sense of the notion of norms following within a broadly rational-choice-theoretic framework. It begins by providing a general characterization of the notion of ... More


Grounding the Right to Health

Jennifer Prah Ruger

in Health and Social Justice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199559978
eISBN:
9780191721489
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559978.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter offers a philosophical justification for the elusive ‘right to health’. It provides a framework for health reform efforts and covers the degree to which the right to health is ... More


Elevation, Activated Moral Norms, and Helping

Christian Miller

in Moral Character: An Empirical Theory

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199674350
eISBN:
9780191760761
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199674350.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter introduces two more enhancers, and follows a similar course as the previous two chapters. The one significant twist, though, is the kind of motivation to which these enhancers seem to ... More


Norm conforming

Geoffrey Brennan, Lina Eriksson, Robert E. Goodin, and Nicholas Southwood

in Explaining Norms

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199654680
eISBN:
9780191747960
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199654680.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter examines the notion of norm conforming within a broadly rational-choice-theoretic perspective. It begins by discussing the notion of externalizing a norm in more detail. It then presents ... More


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