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Reconstruction of ancestral proteomes

Toni Gabaldón and Martijn A. Huynen

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The process of inferring the set of proteins that was likely encoded in the genome of an extinct organism is called Ancestral Proteome Reconstruction. This process usually involves the comparison of ... More


Symbiomics

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the concept of symbiosis. Although the bacteria living in our bodies have recently begun to attract some medical interest, for most of the 20th century symbiosis research had ... More


Organelle Genetics: Yeast and Chlamydomonas

Rowland H. Davis

in The Microbial Models of Molecular Biology: From Genes to Genomes

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195154368
eISBN:
9780199893935
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195154368.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

This chapter begins with a discussion of the origins of yeast mitochondrial work. It then discusses the development of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism. It also shows how early work on ... More


Membranes as sites of energy transduction Membranes as sites of energy transduction

Timothy J. Bradley

in Animal Osmoregulation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198569961
eISBN:
9780191728273
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569961.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Because membranes are impermeable to most solutes, gradients can be established and maintained between intra- and extracellular compartments. These gradients serve as forms of energy storage that can ... More


Emergence of the Eukaryotes: The Second Mystery in Cell Evolution

Franklin M. Harold

in In Search of Cell History: The Evolution of Life's Building Blocks

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226174143
eISBN:
9780226174310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226174310.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

The origin of eukaryotic cells is a mystery second only to the origin of life itself. The problem is that eukaryotes make up a distinctive clade, conspicuously different from prokaryotes, yet they ... More


Symbionts into Organelles: Mitochondria, Plastids, and Their Kin

Franklin M. Harold

in In Search of Cell History: The Evolution of Life's Building Blocks

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780226174143
eISBN:
9780226174310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226174310.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Mitochondria and plastids are the workhorses of eukaryotic metabolism. It is outrageous but indisputably true that they evolved from endosymbiotic Bacteria during the genesis of eukaryotic ... More


Physiological responses of marine invertebrates to thermal stress

Nia M. Whiteley and Clara L. Mackenzie

in Stressors in the Marine Environment: Physiological and ecological responses; societal implications

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780198718826
eISBN:
9780191788352
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718826.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology, Ecology

Marine invertebrates display a tremendous range of thermal sensitivities and thermal tolerance limits, but they can all experience thermal stress at their upper thermal limits. Such limits are shaped ... More


Mutualisms and ecosystem-level processes

Nancy Collins Johnson

in Mutualism

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9780199675654
eISBN:
9780191809422
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199675654.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Mutualism research generally focuses on communities and populations but exciting insights emerge when mutualisms are investigated from an ecosystem perspective. This chapter explores the ways that ... More


Oxygen: boon yet bane—introducing oxygen toxicity and reactive species

Barry Halliwell and John M.C. Gutteridge

in Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2015
ISBN:
9780198717478
eISBN:
9780191802133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717478.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter explains how oxygen (O2) came to be present in the Earth’s atmosphere (the evolution of photosynthesis), the changes in O2 levels that occurred during the Earth’s history, and how they ... More


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