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Atomic Force Microscopy

Peter Eaton and Paul West

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199570454
eISBN:
9780191722851
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570454.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an amazing technique that allies a versatile methodology (it allows the imaging of samples in liquid, vacuum or air) to imaging with unprecedented resolution. But it ... More


Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Second Edition

C. Julian Chen

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211500
eISBN:
9780191705991
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211500.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM), both capable of visualizing and manipulating individual atoms, are the cornerstones of nanoscience and nanotechnology ... More


High-Resolution Electron Microscopy

John C. H. Spence

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199552757
eISBN:
9780191708664
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552757.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This book covers both practical and theoretical aspects of atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy. The discovery of the carbon nanotube, the three-dimensional imaging of the ribosome, and ... More


So what happens when you defocus?

G. A. D. Briggs and O. V. Kolosov

in Acoustic Microscopy: Second Edition

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199232734
eISBN:
9780191716355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232734.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

The first edition of Acoustic Microscopy ended with a chapter emphasizing the need to understand the contrast in terms of the variation of signal with defocus, V(z). This is a fundamental concept in ... More


Overview

C. Julian Chen

in Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Second Edition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211500
eISBN:
9780191705991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211500.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents the basic designs and working principles of STM and AFM, as well as an elementary theory of tunneling and the imaging mechanism of atomic resolution. Three elementary theories ... More


Acoustically excited probe microscopy

G. A. D. Briggs and O. V. Kolosov

in Acoustic Microscopy: Second Edition

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199232734
eISBN:
9780191716355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232734.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Valiant attempts were made to increase the resolution of acoustic microscopy by employing ever higher frequencies and ever less attenuating coupling fluids. But this did not prove the ultimate way to ... More


A Window on the Invisible World (?) 1

Bas C. van Fraassen

in Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199278220
eISBN:
9780191707926
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278220.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

Investigating the connection between instrumentation and measurement, this chapter focuses on the microscope, which is perhaps the best example of an instrument used in measurement, and putatively as ... More


Robert Koch: Pure Science?

Paul U. Unschuld

in What Is Medicine?: Western and Eastern Approaches to Healing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780520257658
eISBN:
9780520944701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520257658.003.0076
Subject:
Anthropology, Medical Anthropology

The cellular pathology of Virchow made a fundamental new orientation possible thus he is considered as the “icon of an era.” The new methods adopted by Virchow enabled him and many other physicians ... More


MEASURING SURFACE FORCES

C. Mathew Mate

in Tribology on the Small Scale: A Bottom Up Approach to Friction, Lubrication, and Wear

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198526780
eISBN:
9780191712098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526780.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter focuses on the two experimental techniques — the surface force apparatus (SFA) and the atomic force microscope (AFM) — that are commonly used for measuring molecular level forces that ... More


TOMOGRAPHY USING MAGNIFYING OPTICS

Yoshio Suzuki, Hiroyuki Toda, and Christian Schroer

in Advanced Tomographic Methods in Materials Research and Engineering

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199213245
eISBN:
9780191707582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213245.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes the principles of Fresnel zone-plate (FZP) optics and imaging properties of FZP microscopy in the context of tomographic application. The limitation of zone-plate optics is ... More


Atomic Force Microscopy

C. Julian Chen

in Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Second Edition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211500
eISBN:
9780191705991
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211500.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses atomic force microscopy (AFM), focusing on the methods for atomic force detection. Although the force detection always requires a cantilever, there are two types of modes: the ... More


High-Resolution Electron Microscopy

John C. H. Spence

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199668632
eISBN:
9780191749322
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199668632.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

High-resolution electron microscopy covers both the practice and theory of atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in all its modern forms and applications, with the aim of ‘seeing ... More


Santiago Ramón y Cajal: From Nerve Nets to Neuron Doctrine

Stanley Finger

in Minds Behind the Brain: A history of the pioneers and their discoveries

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195181821
eISBN:
9780199865277
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181821.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

Scientists knew very little about neurons in the 1870s, uncertain about whether closely associated fibers grow from the cell body and about their respective functions. Scientists also wondered ... More


Advances in the Casimir Effect

Michael Bordag, Galina Leonidovna Klimchitskaya, Umar Mohideen, and Vladimir Mikhaylovich Mostepanenko

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199238743
eISBN:
9780191716461
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238743.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The subject of this book is the Casimir effect, i.e., a manifestation of zero-point oscillations of the quantum vacuum in the form of forces acting between closely spaced bodies. It is a purely ... More


Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies

Joachim Frank

in Three-Dimensional Electron Microscopy of Macromolecular Assemblies: Visualization of Biological Molecules in Their Native State

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195182187
eISBN:
9780199893416
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182187.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

Following an outline of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and its working principles, this chapter starts with a description of specimen preparation methods for EM imaging, including ... More


Crystal growth and evaluation

Alexander Blake

in Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter describes techniques for obtaining and handling single crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction, including solvent evaporation, cooling, liquid and vapour diffusion methods, slow reaction ... More


Measurements of the Casimir Force Between Metals

M. Bordag, G. L. Klimchitskaya, U. Mohideen, and V. M. Mostepanenko

in Advances in the Casimir Effect

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199238743
eISBN:
9780191716461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238743.003.0019
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter starts chronologically with the first measurement, by means of a torsion pendulum, in the recent phase of Casimir force experiments. Then the main breakthroughs in the measurement of the ... More


Materials and Methods

Yu-Feng Hsu and Jerry A. Powell

in Phylogenetic Relationships within Heliodinidae and Systematics of Moths Formerly Assigned to Heliodines Stainton (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520098473
eISBN:
9780520916067
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520098473.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This study examined more than 1,800 specimens of adult Heliodinidae and more than 200 larval and pupal specimens preserved in ethanol. The Essig Museum of Entomology at the University of ... More


The Types and Distribution of Setae on the Larval Legs of Neoperla Geniculata

Fumiko Tamura, Yu Isobe, and Tadashi Oishi

in International Advances in the Ecology, Zoogeography, and Systematics of Mayflies and Stoneflies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520098688
eISBN:
9780520943803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520098688.003.0022
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter investigates the morphology and distribution of setae on each segment of the larval legs in Neoperla geniculata using a scanning electron microscope. It discusses observations on ventral ... More


Fraunhofer Diffraction

B. D. Guenther

in Modern Optics

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780198738770
eISBN:
9780191801983
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198738770.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

The Huygens–Fresnel integral is solved with the assumption that all waves in the aperture are plane waves. This assumption leads to Fraunhofer diffraction. Diffraction is a strong function of source ... More


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