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Mercenaries: The History of a Norm in International Relations

Sarah Percy

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199214334
eISBN:
9780191706608
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214334.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

The main aim of this book is to argue that the use of private force by states has been restricted by a norm against mercenary use. It traces the evolution of this norm, from mercenaries in medieval ... More


Educated Wandering Jews, 800–1250

Maristella Botticini and Zvi Eckstein

in The Chosen Few: How Education Shaped Jewish History, 70-1492

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144870
eISBN:
9781400842483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144870.003.0008
Subject:
Religion, Judaism

This chapter shows that once the Jews became literate, urban, and engaged in skilled occupations, they began migrating within the vast territory under Muslim rule—stretching from the Iberian ... More


India, Tibet, China, Byzantium, and Other Control Cases

Christopher I. Beckwith

in Warriors of the Cloisters: The Central Asian Origins of Science in the Medieval World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155319
eISBN:
9781400845170
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155319.003.0007
Subject:
History, World Medieval History

This chapter examines the essential elements that produced a full scientific culture in Western Europe by comparing the constituent elements in the one culture in which it developed with other ... More


Introduction

Christopher I. Beckwith

in Warriors of the Cloisters: The Central Asian Origins of Science in the Medieval World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155319
eISBN:
9781400845170
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155319.003.0001
Subject:
History, World Medieval History

This book investigates how the recursive argument method, the actual medieval “scientific method,” was transmitted along with the college to medieval Western Europe from Classical Arabic ... More


Warriors of the Cloisters: The Central Asian Origins of Science in the Medieval World

Christopher I. Beckwith

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155319
eISBN:
9781400845170
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155319.001.0001
Subject:
History, World Medieval History

This book tells how key cultural innovations from Central Asia revolutionized medieval Europe and gave rise to the culture of science in the West. Medieval scholars rarely performed scientific ... More


The Medieval Background

SEYMOUR PHILLIPS

in Europeans on the Move: Studies on European Migration 1500–1800

Published in print:
1994
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198204190
eISBN:
9780191676147
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204190.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

The expansion of medieval Europe can be traced as far back as the 8th and 9th centuries, to the Carolingian conquests of the pagan Saxons and Avars in central Europe, to the earliest Viking ... More


Transmission to Medieval Western Europe

Christopher I. Beckwith

in Warriors of the Cloisters: The Central Asian Origins of Science in the Medieval World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155319
eISBN:
9781400845170
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155319.003.0006
Subject:
History, World Medieval History

This chapter examines how the recursive argument method was transmitted to medieval Western Europe. The appearance of the recursive argument method in Latin texts was preceded by more than a century ... More


Philip Grierson 1910–2006

Christopher Brooke and Lord Stewartby

in Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 150 Biographical Memoirs of Fellows, VI

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264232
eISBN:
9780191734243
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264232.003.0004
Subject:
History, Historiography

Philip Grierson, historian and numismatist, was for seventy years a Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, and for over sixty of them he lived in the same set of rooms. His work on the ... More


The Middle Ages

Joel Mokyr

in The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195074772
eISBN:
9780199854981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195074772.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter discusses the medieval Western technology that drew from classical antiquity, Islamic and Asian societies, and its own original creativity. It observes that diffusion of new technology ... More


Introduction: rural credit

Chris Briggs

in Credit and Village Society in Fourteenth-Century England

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264416
eISBN:
9780191734342
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264416.003.0001
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

This book focuses on the credit dealings of medieval Europe. In medieval Europe, manor courts served as private jurisdictions by the landlords which were attended by the peasants to hear and settle ... More


Heartland and Border: The Mental and Physical Geography of Medieval Europe

Robert Bartlett

in Power and Identity in the Middle Ages: Essays in Memory of Rees Davies

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199285464
eISBN:
9780191700330
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199285464.003.0004
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

This chapter argues that the identity that emerged as normative, metropolitan, and central in medieval western Europe was Roman and French. Metropolitan insensitivity, the blind assertion of the ... More


Speaking and Writing

Julia M. H. Smith

in Europe after Rome: A New Cultural History 500-1000

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780192892638
eISBN:
9780191670626
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192892638.003.0002
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

This chapter approaches the question of writing from the perspective of spoken language. It asks: what languages did people speak in the early Middle Ages? And how readily could they understand one ... More


Living and Dying

Julia M. H. Smith

in Europe after Rome: A New Cultural History 500-1000

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780192892638
eISBN:
9780191670626
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192892638.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

Men and women in early medieval Europe lived intimately with deprivation and death. In the face of intermittent climatic disasters, periodic epidemics, and harsh everyday living conditions, the ... More


Lordship, Kingship, and Empire: The Idea of Monarchy 1400-1525 (The Carlyle Lectures 1988)

J. H. Burns

Published in print:
1992
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198202066
eISBN:
9780191675133
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198202066.001.0001
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

This is a study of the ideology of monarchy in late medieval Europe. In the 15th and early 16th centuries, European monarchies faced a series of crises and conflicts, which gave rise to intense ... More


Conclusion

BENJAMIN ARNOLD

in Power and Property in Medieval Germany: Economic and Social Change c.900-1300

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199272211
eISBN:
9780191709999
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199272211.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

Power in medieval societies was a mental construction then represented in reality through the religious ideology informing family life and the household, urban government, the institutions of ... More


Republican and Monarchical Religion

Maurizio Viroli

in As If God Existed: Religion and Liberty in the History of Italy

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691142357
eISBN:
9781400845514
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691142357.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter focuses on republican and monarchical religion in late medieval Europe. Republican religion spread in a late medieval Europe dominated by monarchies that, from the thirteenth century on, ... More


Medieval Europe and Africa

J. R. S. Phillips

in The Medieval Expansion of Europe

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198207405
eISBN:
9780191677656
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198207405.003.0008
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

Europeans did not have much knowledge of Africa in the medieval period compared to Asia. This chapter reveals that knowledge of East Africa was probably very slight before the late 14th century. By ... More


Medieval Europe and North America

J. R. S. Phillips

in The Medieval Expansion of Europe

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198207405
eISBN:
9780191677656
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198207405.003.0009
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

This chapter discusses one of the major consequences of medieval European attempts to learn more about Africa. This being the discovery of one or more groups of islands, which were to be of great ... More


Sourcebook in the Mathematics of Medieval Europe and North Africa

Victor J. Katz, Menso Folkerts, Barnabas Hughes, Roi Wagner, and J. Lennart Berggren (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691156859
eISBN:
9781400883202
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156859.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

Medieval Europe was a meeting place for the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic civilizations, and the fertile intellectual exchange of these cultures can be seen in the mathematical developments of the ... More


Introduction

Julia M. H. Smith

in Europe after Rome: A New Cultural History 500-1000

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780192892638
eISBN:
9780191670626
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192892638.003.0001
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

This introductory chapter presents the main argument of this book, namely that contrary to existing paradigms, the dynamic transformation of Europe's cultures between Antiquity and the Middle Ages ... More


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