## Working with roots

*Christopher G. Small and Jinfang Wang*

### in Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Estimating Equations

- Published in print:
- 2003
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198506881
- eISBN:
- 9780191709258
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506881.003.0004
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter studies the broad class of models which have difficult problems of nonlinearity and multiple roots. These models include the mixture models, a model for bivariate normal paired data with ... More

## Simulation-based Econometric Methods

*Christian Gouriéroux and Alain Monfort*

- Published in print:
- 1997
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198774754
- eISBN:
- 9780191596339
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198774753.001.0001
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This book deals with a new generation of econometric methods leading to criterion functions without simple analytical expression. The difficulty often comes from the presence of integrals of large ... More

## The Statistical Analysis of Discrete‐Response CV Data

*Michael Hanemann and Barbara Kanninen*

### in Valuing Environmental Preferences: Theory and Practice of the Contingent Valuation Method in the US, EU , and developing Countries

- Published in print:
- 2001
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780199248919
- eISBN:
- 9780191595950
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0199248915.003.0011
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Economic theory of responses to CV survey questions is developed, set within the framework of the random utility maximization model, which generates statistical models for the survey responses. A ... More

## Likelihood

*N. Thompson Hobbs and Mevin B. Hooten*

### in Bayesian Models: A Statistical Primer for Ecologists

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691159287
- eISBN:
- 9781400866557
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691159287.003.0004
- Subject:
- Biology, Ecology

This chapter is an overview of likelihood and maximum likelihood. Likelihood forms the fundamental link between models and data in the Bayesian framework. In addition, maximum likelihood is a widely ... More

## Likelihood

*David F. Hendry*

### in Dynamic Econometrics

- Published in print:
- 1995
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198283164
- eISBN:
- 9780191596384
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198283164.003.0010
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

The likelihood function is the obverse of the data‐density function, and summaries thereof lead to maximum likelihood estimation. The first derivative of the log‐likelihood, the score, plays a ... More

## Statistical Methods

*John McDonald and G. D. Snooks*

### in Domesday Economy: A New Approach to Anglo-Norman History

- Published in print:
- 1986
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198285243
- eISBN:
- 9780191596636
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198285248.003.0008
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Economic History

‘Statistical methods’ describes the statistical procedures used in the econometric analysis of Domesday production and fiscal relationships. These include the least squares, maximum likelihood, and ... More

## Computational Molecular Evolution

*Ziheng Yang*

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- April 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780198567028
- eISBN:
- 9780191728280
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567028.001.0001
- Subject:
- Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The field of molecular evolution has experienced explosive growth in recent years due to the rapid accumulation of genetic sequence data, continuous improvements to computer hardware and software, ... More

## How to Estimate Default Intensity Processes

*Darrell Duffie*

### in Measuring Corporate Default Risk

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- September 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780199279234
- eISBN:
- 9780191728419
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279234.003.0003
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter presents the theory underlying the maximum likelihood estimation of term structures of survival probabilities, for example the dependence of default probability on time horizon. The ... More

## The Preferences of Insiders and Outsiders: Testing the Model's Assumptions about Individual Interests

*David Rueda*

### in Social Democracy Inside Out: Partisanship and Labor Market Policy in Advanced Industrialized Democracies

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- January 2008
- ISBN:
- 9780199216352
- eISBN:
- 9780191712241
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216352.003.0003
- Subject:
- Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter has two main goals: to produce data that provide a complete picture of the preferences of insiders, outsiders, and upscale groups; and to test whether these preferences fit into the ... More

## The Structure of Simultaneous Equations Estimators

*David F. Hendry*

### in Econometrics: Alchemy or Science?: Essays in Econometric Methodology

- Published in print:
- 2000
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198293545
- eISBN:
- 9780191596391
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198293542.003.0014
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Optimal estimation is necessary for empirical modelling, but can be summarized in an estimator generating equation (EGE). The EGE reduces a vast literature on estimating individual equations and ... More

## Maximum‐Likelihood Inference Theory of Co‐Integrated VAR

*Michio Hatanaka*

### in Time-Series-Based Econometrics: Unit Roots and Co-integrations

- Published in print:
- 1996
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198773535
- eISBN:
- 9780191596360
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198773536.003.0015
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter examines inference procedures for the co-integration developed by Johansen (1988, 1991a, 1992b, 1992c, 1994) based on maximum-likelihood analysis of the VAR error-correction ... More

## Co‐Integration in Systems of Equations

*Anindya Banerjee, Juan J. Dolado, John W. Galbraith, and David F. Hendry*

### in Co-integration, Error Correction, and the Econometric Analysis of Non-Stationary Data

- Published in print:
- 1993
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198288107
- eISBN:
- 9780191595899
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198288107.003.0008
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Co‐integration in systems of equations is analysed. Linear co‐integrated systems are expressed in error‐correction form and maximum likelihood estimation and inference for co‐integrating vectors are ... More

## Parsimony and phylogenetics in the genomic age

*Victor A. Albert*

### in Parsimony, Phylogeny, and Genomics

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780199297306
- eISBN:
- 9780191713729
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199297306.003.0001
- Subject:
- Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Parsimony analysis (Ockham's razor) as a general method of inference has a long history, from the arguments of Copernicus against Ptolemy's heliocentric solar system, through Sir Farncis Crick's ... More

## Maximum likelihood methods

*ZIHENG YANG*

### in Computational Molecular Evolution

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- April 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780198567028
- eISBN:
- 9780191728280
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567028.003.0004
- Subject:
- Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses likelihood calculation for multiple sequences on a phylogenetic tree. As indicated at the end of Chapter 3, this is a natural extension to the parsimony method when we want to ... More

## Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

*David A Liberles (ed.)*

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- September 2008
- ISBN:
- 9780199299188
- eISBN:
- 9780191714979
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.001.0001
- Subject:
- Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Ancestral sequence reconstruction is a technique of growing importance in molecular evolutionary biology and comparative genomics. As a powerful tool for testing evolutionary and ecological ... More

## Dynamic Econometrics

*David F. Hendry*

- Published in print:
- 1995
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198283164
- eISBN:
- 9780191596384
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198283164.001.0001
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This systematic and integrated framework for econometric modelling is organized in terms of three levels of knowledge: probability, estimation, and modelling. All necessary concepts of econometrics ... More

## Introduction and Motivations

*Christian Gouriéroux and Alain Monfort*

### in Simulation-based Econometric Methods

- Published in print:
- 1997
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198774754
- eISBN:
- 9780191596339
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198774753.003.0001
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Reviews the standard parametric or semi‐parametric methods (Maximum Likelihood, Pseudo‐Maximum Likelihood, GMM). Then, considers models in which the likelihood function or the conditional moments do ... More

## Estimation

*Qin Duo*

### in The Formation of Econometrics: A Historical Perspective

- Published in print:
- 1997
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198292876
- eISBN:
- 9780191596803
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198292872.003.0004
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought, Econometrics

Narrates the process of how estimation was formalized. Estimation can be seen as the genesis of econometrics, since finding estimates for coefficients of economically meaningful relationships has ... More

## Statistical Alternatives and Supplements to Random Sampling

*Patrick Dattalo*

### in Strategies to Approximate Random Sampling and Assignment

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780195378351
- eISBN:
- 9780199864645
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378351.003.0003
- Subject:
- Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter describes the following alternatives and complements to RS in terms of their assumptions, implementations, strengths, and weaknesses: (1) randomization tests; (2) multiple imputation; ... More

## Introduction to Probability and Random Variables

*M. Vidyasagar*

### in Hidden Markov Processes: Theory and Applications to Biology

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691133157
- eISBN:
- 9781400850518
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691133157.003.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter provides an introduction to probability and random variables. Probability theory is an attempt to formalize the notion of uncertainty in the outcome of an experiment. For instance, ... More