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Species Selection, Clade Selection, and Macroevolution

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines selection at the level of species and clades. The history of the species selection debate, including its conceptual link to the idea that species are individuals, is outlined. ... More


 Evolution of the DNA World and the Chance Events That Accompanied It: More about Complexity

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

First life-forms appeared at least as early as 3.5 billion years ago in the form of prokaryotes. Some of these species developed oxygenic photosynthesis, which resulted in the presence of oxygen gas ... More


Sexual and Social Behavior of Crustacea: A Way Forward

J. Emmett Duffy and Martin Thiel

in Evolutionary Ecology of Social and Sexual Systems: Crustaceans as Model Organisms

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195179927
eISBN:
9780199790111
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179927.003.0021
Subject:
Biology, Aquatic Biology

The Crustacea represents one of the major branches in the tree of animal life, displaying diversity in form and lifestyle that rival those of the vertebrates and insects. But perhaps because of the ... More


The Promise and Challenges of Introducing Tree Thinking into Evolution Education

Kefyn M. Catley, Laura R. Novick, and Daniel J. Funk

in Evolution Challenges: Integrating Research and Practice in Teaching and Learning about Evolution

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199730421
eISBN:
9780199949557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730421.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Engaging in tree thinking (using phylogenetic diagrams to interpret and infer historical processes) is a prerequisite for understanding macroevolution. Tree thinking has become increasingly important ... More


An Intentional Approach to Teaching Evolution: Making Students Aware of the Factors Influencing Learning of Microevolution and Macroevolution

Sherry A. Southerland and Louis S. Nadelson

in Evolution Challenges: Integrating Research and Practice in Teaching and Learning about Evolution

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780199730421
eISBN:
9780199949557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199730421.003.0015
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Evolution education has been hampered by two conditions. The first is the perception that there is no need to understand anything beyond the short-term processes of evolution (microevolution) to be a ... More


Species and Speciation in the Fossil Record

Warren D. Allmon and Margaret M. Yacobucci (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226377445
eISBN:
9780226377582
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226377582.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Paleontology

The nature and concept of "species" are central to paleontology, yet the resurgence of interest in species in evolutionary biology over the past few decades has had surprisingly little impact on how ... More


Chance in Evolution

Grant Ramsey and Charles H. Pence (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226401744
eISBN:
9780226401911
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226401911.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Evolutionary biology since Darwin has seen a dramatic entrenchment and elaboration of the role of chance in evolution. It is nearly impossible to discuss contemporary evolutionary theory in any depth ... More


Evolutionary Theory: A Hierarchical Perspective

Niles Eldredge, Telmo Pievani, Emanuele Serrelli, and Ilya Tëmkin (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780226426051
eISBN:
9780226426198
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226426198.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The hierarchical approach to evolution, emerged since the 1980s at the crossroads of paleobiology, genetics, and developmental biology, has grown into a unifying perspective on the natural world and ... More


Evolution's Wedge: Competition and the Origins of Diversity

David W. Pfennig and Karin S. Pfennig

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780520274181
eISBN:
9780520954045
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520274181.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

Among evolutionary biology's most persistent challenges is the challenge to explain why there are so many different species and why they tend to differ in ecologically relevant traits. This book, ... More


Cophylogenetic dynamics

Dale H. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, and Kevin P. Johnson

in Coevolution of Life on Hosts: Integrating Ecology and History

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226302133
eISBN:
9780226302300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226302300.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Interacting groups with patterns of codiversification are powerful arenas for testing the influence of selection, dispersal, and other processes on lineage diversification. When reproduction in one ... More


Comparative cophylogenetics of lice

Dale H. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, and Kevin P. Johnson

in Coevolution of Life on Hosts: Integrating Ecology and History

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226302133
eISBN:
9780226302300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226302300.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Cophylogenetic patterns are central to the study of coevolution in the broad sense because they document codiversification, which is the correlated diversification of interacting lineages. In the ... More


Coevolution of life on hosts

Dale H. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, and Kevin P. Johnson

in Coevolution of Life on Hosts: Integrating Ecology and History

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226302133
eISBN:
9780226302300
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226302300.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter summarizes the book using a graphical framework that integrates the coadaption and codiversification ends of coevolution with five “zones” of coevolution. This framework can be applied ... More


Adaptive Landscapes and Macroevolutionary Dynamics

Thomas F. Hansen

in The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199595372
eISBN:
9780191774799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595372.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter starts out with a review of what is known about the potential for evolutionary change, the strength and pattern of selection on phenotypic traits, and rates of evolution and adaptation. ... More


Adaptive Landscapes, Evolution, and the Fossil Record

Michael A. Bell

in The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199595372
eISBN:
9780191774799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595372.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Fitness and adaptive landscapes have theoretical limitations, but they have played a valuable role in integrating population genetics and macroevolution. Sewall Wright introduced fitness landscapes ... More


How to Talk about Macroevolution

John O. Reiss

in Not by Design: Retiring Darwin's Watchmaker

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520258938
eISBN:
9780520944404
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520258938.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter addresses how we can talk about macroevolution without lapsing into teleology, and shows that the principle of the conditions for existence can play a key role here, first discussing how ... More


Speciation, Extinction, and the Distribution of Phylogenetic Diversity

Marc W. Cadotte and T. Jonathan Davies

in Phylogenies in Ecology: A Guide to Concepts and Methods

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691157689
eISBN:
9781400881192
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691157689.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines the use of phylogenetic methods to explain macroevolutionary trends in speciation, extinction, and the distribution of phylogenetic diversity across space and through time. The ... More


Religious People Are All Young-Earth Creationists

Elaine Howard Ecklund and Christopher P. Scheitle

in Religion vs. Science: What Religious People Really Think

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780190650629
eISBN:
9780190650650
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190650629.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Typically the origin of the earth is thought of as a two-sided issue: you either believe in evolution or creationism. However, this chapter illuminates the nuance and variety in people’s beliefs ... More


Speciation and Adaptation: Large-Scale Patterns in the Evolution of Life, 1972–

Niles Eldredge

in Eternal Ephemera: Adaptation and the Origin of Species from the Nineteenth Century Through Punctuated Equilibria and Beyond

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231153164
eISBN:
9780231526753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231153164.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter deals with the efforts to reinvent the concepts focusing on the origin of discrete species, which implies that these concepts must be essentially right. The 1970s and 1980s witnessed the ... More


The Major Transitions in Evolution Revisited

Brett Calcott and Kim Sterelny (eds)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015240
eISBN:
9780262295703
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015240.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

In 1995, John Maynard Smith and Eörs Szathmáry published their influential book The Major Transitions in Evolution. The “transitions” that Maynard Smith and Szathmáry chose to describe all ... More


Evolvability and Its Evolvability

Alessandro Minelli

in Challenging the Modern Synthesis: Adaptation, Development, and Inheritance

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780199377176
eISBN:
9780199377190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780199377176.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

No universally accepted notion of evolvability is available, focus being alternatively put onto either genetic or phenotypic change. The heuristic power of this concept is best found when considering ... More


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