## Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

*David A Liberles (ed.)*

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- September 2008
- ISBN:
- 9780199299188
- eISBN:
- 9780191714979
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.001.0001
- Subject:
- Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Ancestral sequence reconstruction is a technique of growing importance in molecular evolutionary biology and comparative genomics. As a powerful tool for testing evolutionary and ecological ... More

## Simulation-based Econometric Methods

*Christian Gouriéroux and Alain Monfort*

- Published in print:
- 1997
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198774754
- eISBN:
- 9780191596339
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198774753.001.0001
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This book deals with a new generation of econometric methods leading to criterion functions without simple analytical expression. The difficulty often comes from the presence of integrals of large ... More

## Likelihood

*N. Thompson Hobbs and Mevin B. Hooten*

### in Bayesian Models: A Statistical Primer for Ecologists

- Published in print:
- 2015
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691159287
- eISBN:
- 9781400866557
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691159287.003.0004
- Subject:
- Biology, Ecology

This chapter is an overview of likelihood and maximum likelihood. Likelihood forms the fundamental link between models and data in the Bayesian framework. In addition, maximum likelihood is a widely ... More

## Tracking Truth: Knowledge, Evidence, and Science

*Sherrilyn Roush*

- Published in print:
- 2005
- Published Online:
- February 2006
- ISBN:
- 9780199274734
- eISBN:
- 9780191603228
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0199274738.001.0001
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book develops and defends a new externalist, reliabilist theory of knowledge and evidence, and develops a new view about scientific realism. Knowledge is viewed as a tracking theory that has a ... More

## Artificial likelihoods and estimating functions

*Christopher G. Small and Jinfang Wang*

### in Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Estimating Equations

- Published in print:
- 2003
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198506881
- eISBN:
- 9780191709258
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506881.003.0006
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter discusses the problem of root selection using artificial objective functions associated with an estimating function; the artificial likelihoods discussed in this chapter share many ... More

## Computational Molecular Evolution

*Ziheng Yang*

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- April 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780198567028
- eISBN:
- 9780191728280
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567028.001.0001
- Subject:
- Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The field of molecular evolution has experienced explosive growth in recent years due to the rapid accumulation of genetic sequence data, continuous improvements to computer hardware and software, ... More

## Introduction

*Erik J. Olsson*

### in Against Coherence: Truth, Probability, and Justification

- Published in print:
- 2005
- Published Online:
- July 2005
- ISBN:
- 9780199279999
- eISBN:
- 9780191602665
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0199279993.003.0001
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Two main questions are raised: Does coherence imply truth? Does more coherence imply higher likelihood of truth? Probability theory is chosen as the framework within which these issues will be ... More

## Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Estimating Equations

*Christopher G. Small and Jinfang Wang*

- Published in print:
- 2003
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198506881
- eISBN:
- 9780191709258
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506881.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Nonlinearity arises in statistical inference in various ways, with varying degrees of severity, as an obstacle to statistical analysis. More entrenched forms of nonlinearity often require intensive ... More

## Introduction

*Christopher G. Small and Jinfang Wang*

### in Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Estimating Equations

- Published in print:
- 2003
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198506881
- eISBN:
- 9780191709258
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506881.003.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

The first part of this chapter provides some background information on the problem of nonlinearity arising in statistical inference. In particular, it discusses the problem of multiple roots and ... More

## Working with roots

*Christopher G. Small and Jinfang Wang*

### in Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Estimating Equations

- Published in print:
- 2003
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198506881
- eISBN:
- 9780191709258
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506881.003.0004
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter studies the broad class of models which have difficult problems of nonlinearity and multiple roots. These models include the mixture models, a model for bivariate normal paired data with ... More

## Hidden Markov Processes: Theory and Applications to Biology

*M. Vidyasagar*

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- October 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780691133157
- eISBN:
- 9781400850518
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Princeton University Press
- DOI:
- 10.23943/princeton/9780691133157.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. It starts from first principles, so that ... More

## Likelihood

*David F. Hendry*

### in Dynamic Econometrics

- Published in print:
- 1995
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198283164
- eISBN:
- 9780191596384
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198283164.003.0010
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

The likelihood function is the obverse of the data‐density function, and summaries thereof lead to maximum likelihood estimation. The first derivative of the log‐likelihood, the score, plays a ... More

## The Preferences of Insiders and Outsiders: Testing the Model's Assumptions about Individual Interests

*David Rueda*

### in Social Democracy Inside Out: Partisanship and Labor Market Policy in Advanced Industrialized Democracies

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- January 2008
- ISBN:
- 9780199216352
- eISBN:
- 9780191712241
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216352.003.0003
- Subject:
- Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter has two main goals: to produce data that provide a complete picture of the preferences of insiders, outsiders, and upscale groups; and to test whether these preferences fit into the ... More

## How to Estimate Default Intensity Processes

*Darrell Duffie*

### in Measuring Corporate Default Risk

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- September 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780199279234
- eISBN:
- 9780191728419
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279234.003.0003
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter presents the theory underlying the maximum likelihood estimation of term structures of survival probabilities, for example the dependence of default probability on time horizon. The ... More

## Bayesian Statistical Inference for Psychological Research

*Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss*

### in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- January 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195322989
- eISBN:
- 9780199869206
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0012
- Subject:
- Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter introduces psychologists to the Bayesian outlook in statistics. Bayesian statistics is based on a definition of probability as a particular measure of the opinions of ideally consistent ... More

## Murder and (of?) the Likelihood Principle: A Trialogue

*Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss*

### in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- January 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195322989
- eISBN:
- 9780199869206
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0017
- Subject:
- Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The Likelihood Principle of Bayesian inference asserts that only likelihoods matter to single-stage inference. A likelihood is the probability of evidence given a hypothesis multiplied by a positive ... More

## Subjective Probabilities in Medical Diagnosis

*Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss*

### in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- January 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195322989
- eISBN:
- 9780199869206
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0021
- Subject:
- Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter argues that computer-aided medical diagnosis can become an effective and economically feasible tool through the routine use of appropriately obtained physician estimates of likelihoods. ... More

## Likelihood Ratios as a Measure of the Diagnostic Usefulness of Excretory Urogram Information

*Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss*

### in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- January 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195322989
- eISBN:
- 9780199869206
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0024
- Subject:
- Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses a method for measuring the diagnostic usefulness of the information from a radiologic examination (excretory urography). The log likelihood ratio (LLR) method requires ... More

## Introduction and Motivations

*Christian Gouriéroux and Alain Monfort*

### in Simulation-based Econometric Methods

- Published in print:
- 1997
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198774754
- eISBN:
- 9780191596339
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198774753.003.0001
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Reviews the standard parametric or semi‐parametric methods (Maximum Likelihood, Pseudo‐Maximum Likelihood, GMM). Then, considers models in which the likelihood function or the conditional moments do ... More

## Simulated Maximum Likelihood, Pseudo‐Maximum Likelihood, and Nonlinear Least Squares Methods

*Christian Gouriéroux and Alain Monfort*

### in Simulation-based Econometric Methods

- Published in print:
- 1997
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198774754
- eISBN:
- 9780191596339
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198774753.003.0003
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

The simulated analogues to Maximum Likelihood, Pseudo‐Maximum Likelihood, and Non‐Linear Least Squares Methods are presented. Their asymptotic properties and bias corrections are given under various ... More