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Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

David A Liberles (ed.)

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Ancestral sequence reconstruction is a technique of growing importance in molecular evolutionary biology and comparative genomics. As a powerful tool for testing evolutionary and ecological ... More


Simulation-based Econometric Methods

Christian Gouriéroux and Alain Monfort

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198774754
eISBN:
9780191596339
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198774753.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This book deals with a new generation of econometric methods leading to criterion functions without simple analytical expression. The difficulty often comes from the presence of integrals of large ... More


Likelihood

N. Thompson Hobbs and Mevin B. Hooten

in Bayesian Models: A Statistical Primer for Ecologists

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691159287
eISBN:
9781400866557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691159287.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter is an overview of likelihood and maximum likelihood. Likelihood forms the fundamental link between models and data in the Bayesian framework. In addition, maximum likelihood is a widely ... More


Tracking Truth: Knowledge, Evidence, and Science

Sherrilyn Roush

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780199274734
eISBN:
9780191603228
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199274738.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This book develops and defends a new externalist, reliabilist theory of knowledge and evidence, and develops a new view about scientific realism. Knowledge is viewed as a tracking theory that has a ... More


Artificial likelihoods and estimating functions

Christopher G. Small and Jinfang Wang

in Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Estimating Equations

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198506881
eISBN:
9780191709258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506881.003.0006
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter discusses the problem of root selection using artificial objective functions associated with an estimating function; the artificial likelihoods discussed in this chapter share many ... More


Computational Molecular Evolution

Ziheng Yang

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198567028
eISBN:
9780191728280
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198567028.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The field of molecular evolution has experienced explosive growth in recent years due to the rapid accumulation of genetic sequence data, continuous improvements to computer hardware and software, ... More


Introduction

Erik J. Olsson

in Against Coherence: Truth, Probability, and Justification

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780199279999
eISBN:
9780191602665
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199279993.003.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Two main questions are raised: Does coherence imply truth? Does more coherence imply higher likelihood of truth? Probability theory is chosen as the framework within which these issues will be ... More


Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Estimating Equations

Christopher G. Small and Jinfang Wang

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198506881
eISBN:
9780191709258
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506881.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Nonlinearity arises in statistical inference in various ways, with varying degrees of severity, as an obstacle to statistical analysis. More entrenched forms of nonlinearity often require intensive ... More


Introduction

Christopher G. Small and Jinfang Wang

in Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Estimating Equations

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198506881
eISBN:
9780191709258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506881.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

The first part of this chapter provides some background information on the problem of nonlinearity arising in statistical inference. In particular, it discusses the problem of multiple roots and ... More


Working with roots

Christopher G. Small and Jinfang Wang

in Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Estimating Equations

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198506881
eISBN:
9780191709258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506881.003.0004
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter studies the broad class of models which have difficult problems of nonlinearity and multiple roots. These models include the mixture models, a model for bivariate normal paired data with ... More


Hidden Markov Processes: Theory and Applications to Biology

M. Vidyasagar

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691133157
eISBN:
9781400850518
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691133157.001.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. It starts from first principles, so that ... More


Likelihood

David F. Hendry

in Dynamic Econometrics

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198283164
eISBN:
9780191596384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198283164.003.0010
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

The likelihood function is the obverse of the data‐density function, and summaries thereof lead to maximum likelihood estimation. The first derivative of the log‐likelihood, the score, plays a ... More


The Preferences of Insiders and Outsiders: Testing the Model's Assumptions about Individual Interests

David Rueda

in Social Democracy Inside Out: Partisanship and Labor Market Policy in Advanced Industrialized Democracies

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199216352
eISBN:
9780191712241
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216352.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter has two main goals: to produce data that provide a complete picture of the preferences of insiders, outsiders, and upscale groups; and to test whether these preferences fit into the ... More


How to Estimate Default Intensity Processes

Darrell Duffie

in Measuring Corporate Default Risk

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199279234
eISBN:
9780191728419
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279234.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter presents the theory underlying the maximum likelihood estimation of term structures of survival probabilities, for example the dependence of default probability on time horizon. The ... More


Bayesian Statistical Inference for Psychological Research

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter introduces psychologists to the Bayesian outlook in statistics. Bayesian statistics is based on a definition of probability as a particular measure of the opinions of ideally consistent ... More


Murder and (of?) the Likelihood Principle: A Trialogue

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The Likelihood Principle of Bayesian inference asserts that only likelihoods matter to single-stage inference. A likelihood is the probability of evidence given a hypothesis multiplied by a positive ... More


Subjective Probabilities in Medical Diagnosis

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0021
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter argues that computer-aided medical diagnosis can become an effective and economically feasible tool through the routine use of appropriately obtained physician estimates of likelihoods. ... More


Likelihood Ratios as a Measure of the Diagnostic Usefulness of Excretory Urogram Information

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0024
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses a method for measuring the diagnostic usefulness of the information from a radiologic examination (excretory urography). The log likelihood ratio (LLR) method requires ... More


Introduction and Motivations

Christian Gouriéroux and Alain Monfort

in Simulation-based Econometric Methods

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198774754
eISBN:
9780191596339
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198774753.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

Reviews the standard parametric or semi‐parametric methods (Maximum Likelihood, Pseudo‐Maximum Likelihood, GMM). Then, considers models in which the likelihood function or the conditional moments do ... More


Simulated Maximum Likelihood, Pseudo‐Maximum Likelihood, and Nonlinear Least Squares Methods

Christian Gouriéroux and Alain Monfort

in Simulation-based Econometric Methods

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198774754
eISBN:
9780191596339
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198774753.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

The simulated analogues to Maximum Likelihood, Pseudo‐Maximum Likelihood, and Non‐Linear Least Squares Methods are presented. Their asymptotic properties and bias corrections are given under various ... More


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