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Using a Mandatory Subordinated Debt Issuance Requirement to Set Regulatory Capital Requirements for Bank Credit Risks

Paul Kupiec

in Capital Adequacy beyond Basel: Banking, Securities, and Insurance

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780195169713
eISBN:
9780199783717
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195169713.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Important shortcomings limit the appeal of the direct use of bank internal models to set regulatory capital requirements for bank credit risks. Common approaches for calculating credit value for ... More


Learning and Switching of Internal Models for Dexterous Tool Use

Hiroshi Imamizu

in Motor Control: Theories, Experiments, and Applications

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195395273
eISBN:
9780199863518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395273.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Internal models are neural mechanisms that mimic the input-output properties of controlled objects, possibly enabling skillful control of our bodies and external tools. This chapter reviews a series ... More


Motor Control and Coordination

Mark L. Latash

in Synergy

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195333169
eISBN:
9780199864195
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333169.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems, Techniques

The third part of the book starts with a review of the contribution of two great scientists, Israel Gelfand and Michael Tsetlin, to motor control. The notions of hierarchical control and structural ... More


Arguments for the No‐Reference View of ‘I’

Lucy O'Brien

in Self-Knowing Agents

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199261482
eISBN:
9780191718632
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199261482.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter presents an extended discussion of Anscombe on the problem of first-person reference. It introduces and criticizes the internal perceptual model for first-person reference. It also ... More


The Importance of Early Attachments

Wendy B. Smith

in Youth Leaving Foster Care: A Developmental, Relationship-Based Approach to Practice

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195375596
eISBN:
9780199893355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195375596.003.0004
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families

Attachment theory is presented, with a case narrative of a former foster youth as illustration. Internal working models are explained, along with dynamics of secure, insecure, and disorganized ... More


Predictive Coding: A Free-Energy Formulation

Karl J. Friston and Stefan Kiebel

in Predictions in the Brain: Using Our Past to Generate a Future

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780195395518
eISBN:
9780199897230
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195395518.003.0076
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter looks at prediction from the point of view of perception; namely, the fitting or inversion of internal models of sensory data by the brain. It focuses on how neural networks could be ... More


Learning to Make Accurate Predictions

Reza Shadmehr and Sandro Mussa-Ivaldi

in Biological Learning and Control: How the Brain Builds Representations, Predicts Events, and Makes Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016964
eISBN:
9780262301282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016964.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter considers some very simple learning problems to make accurate predictions. It reviews the least mean squared (LMS) algorithm. It shows that internal model is simply a link between motor ... More


Development from Marr’s theory of the cerebellum

Takeru Honda and Masao Ito

in Computational Theories and their Implementation in the Brain: The legacy of David Marr

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198749783
eISBN:
9780191831638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198749783.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

Marr’s theory of the cerebellum in 1969 came as a great surprise. Since Albus published a similar theory two years later, these network theories have been collectively called the “Marr–Albus” model. ... More


Biological Learning and Control: How the Brain Builds Representations, Predicts Events, and Makes Decisions

Reza Shadmehr and Sandro Mussa-Ivaldi

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016964
eISBN:
9780262301282
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016964.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This book presents a theoretical framework for understanding the regularity of the brain’s perceptions, its reactions to sensory stimuli, and its control of movements. The book offers an account of ... More


The Space Inside

Reza Shadmehr and Sandro Mussa-Ivaldi

in Biological Learning and Control: How the Brain Builds Representations, Predicts Events, and Makes Decisions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262016964
eISBN:
9780262301282
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262016964.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Research and Theory

This chapter describes how the brain forms maps of the body in relation to the internal world. It illustrates that arm movements cannot be controlled by some linear feedback mechanism. It shifts the ... More


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