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Immune and endocrine systems

Fabrizio Benedetti

in Placebo Effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199559121
eISBN:
9780191724022
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559121.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The placebo effect in the immune and endocrine system is basically a conditioned response, whereby classical conditioning plays a key role. Conditioned immunosuppression affects a number of immune ... More


Hormonal Influences on Brain Plasticity: III. Peptide Hormones

Luis Miguel García-Segura

in Hormones and Brain Plasticity

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195326611
eISBN:
9780199864881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326611.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

This chapter examines the role of peptide hormones in the regulation of neural mutability and the involved cellular and molecular mechanisms. It first considers the effects of vasopressin and ... More


Obesity, Trace Metals, and Infection

Jerome O. Nriagu

in Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029193
eISBN:
9780262327619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.003.0012
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Trace metals are required in small quantities for a wide array of metabolic functions in the body. In terms of obesity, they can enhance insulin action through activating insulin receptor sites, ... More


Conclusions for Science and Technology

Maureen D. McKelvey

in Evolutionary Innovations: The Business of Biotechnology

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198297246
eISBN:
9780191685316
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297246.003.0010
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation, Knowledge Management

This chapter draws some conclusions about science and technology based on the theoretical and empirical discussions in previous chapters. Both scientific and technological activities involve ... More


Diabetes and Acute Metabolic Complications, Infections, and Inflammation

Leonard E. Egede and Jeremy B. Soule

in Diabetes Public Health: From Data to Policy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195317060
eISBN:
9780199871544
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195317060.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the complications, infections, and inflammation associated with diabetes. These include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, hypoglycemia, influenza and ... More


Physiological Effects and Disease Manifestations of Performance-Enhancing Androgenic–Anabolic Steroids, Growth Hormone, and Insulin

Michael R. Graham, Julien S. Baker, Peter Evans, and Bruce Davies

in Neurovascular Medicine: Pursuing Cellular Longevity for Healthy Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195326697
eISBN:
9780199864874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326697.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) can be used to increase muscle mass and strength in adult males. Despite successful detection and convictions by sporting anti-doping agencies, they are still ... More


Central Autonomic Control of Energy Homeostasis

Barry E. Levin and Alison M. Strack

in Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780195306637
eISBN:
9780199894130
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306637.003.0017
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

Energy homeostasis, the balance of energy intake, assimilation, expenditure, and storage, is regulated by a distributed network of specialized metabolic sensing neurons that receive viscerosensory ... More


Dreams of Greatness: The Birth of the Pharmaceutical Industry

Michael Kinch

in Prescription for Change: The Looming Crisis in Drug Development

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9781469630625
eISBN:
9781469630649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of North Carolina Press
DOI:
10.5149/northcarolina/9781469630625.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation

This chapter details the birth of the pharmaceutical industry, whose roots trace back more than six millennia. While modern society struggles with opiate addiction, the problem is centuries old and ... More


A life course approach to diabetes

Nita Forouhi, Elizabeth Hall, and Paul McKeigue

in A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198578154
eISBN:
9780191724039
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198578154.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews evidence that the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adult life may be set by factors operating early in the life course of an individual. There is consistent evidence ... More


Metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary heart disease

G. Hu, Q. Qiao, and J. Tuomilehto

in Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology: From aetiology to public health

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198525738
eISBN:
9780191724114
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525738.003.0022
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the association of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary heart disease (CHD). Topics covered include incidence of CHD and CVD in patients with diabetes, possible ... More


Physical Activity, Fitness, and the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

Gang Hu, Timo A. Lakka, and Jaakko Tuomilehto

in Epidemiologic Methods in Physical Activity Studies

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195183009
eISBN:
9780199865116
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183009.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews current evidence regarding the role of physical activity and physical fitness in the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological evidence from prospective cohort ... More


Disorders associated with hyperglycaemia in pregnancy

R. J. Jarrett

in Antenatal and Neonatal Screening

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192628268
eISBN:
9780191723605
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192628268.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter considers whether screening in order to identify new cases of diabetes in pregnancy is worthwhile. It focuses on non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and gestational diabetes ... More


Metabolic and Hormonal Predictors of Obesity

Frank B. Hu

in Obesity Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195312911
eISBN:
9780199865260
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195312911.003.0018
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews epidemiologic studies on metabolic and hormonal predictors of obesity. It focuses primarily on prospective cohort studies, first discussing metabolic predictors, including ... More


Metabolic Consequences of Obesity

Frank B. Hu

in Obesity Epidemiology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195312911
eISBN:
9780199865260
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195312911.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews the links between obesity and individual components of the metabolic syndrome as well as underlying biological mechanisms, such as insulin resistance, systemic inflammation, and ... More


Parallels in understanding the endocrine control of lifespan with the firebug <i>Pyrrhocoris apterus</i> and the fruit fly <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>

Magdalena Hodkova and Marc Tatar

in Mechanisms of Life History Evolution: The Genetics and Physiology of Life History Traits and Trade-Offs

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199568765
eISBN:
9780191774591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568765.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

In many organisms, reproduction is negatively correlated with life span, but little is known about proximate mechanisms of this trade-off. According to the traditional view, internal energy reserves ... More


The genetics of dietary modulation of lifespan

Johannes H. Bauer and Stephen L. Helfand

in Mechanisms of Life History Evolution: The Genetics and Physiology of Life History Traits and Trade-Offs

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199568765
eISBN:
9780191774591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568765.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Reducing the calories in the diet of animals has long been known to extend life span significantly in the majority of species tested. Even in cases where life span is not extended, the animals ... More


Honey bee life history plasticity: Development, behavior, and aging

Brenda Rascón, Navdeep S. Mutti, Christina Tolfsen, and Gro V. Amdam

in Mechanisms of Life History Evolution: The Genetics and Physiology of Life History Traits and Trade-Offs

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199568765
eISBN:
9780191774591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568765.003.0020
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) females differentiate into distinct castes during development: the primary reproductive queen and the essentially sterile worker. Workers are characterized by complex ... More


Molecular basis of life history regulation in <i>C. elegans</i> and other organisms

Birgit Gerisch and Adam Antebi

in Mechanisms of Life History Evolution: The Genetics and Physiology of Life History Traits and Trade-Offs

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199568765
eISBN:
9780191774591
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568765.003.0022
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

All animals have evolved a remarkable ability to cope with environmental change. This phenotypic plasticity can lead to presumably adaptive, regulatory adjustments in all aspects of the life cycle – ... More


Vascular and metabolic function across the life course

Debbie A Lawlor and Rebecca Hardy

in A Life Course Approach to Healthy Ageing

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199656516
eISBN:
9780191748042
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199656516.003.0011
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The pathophysiological process of atherosclerosis, which ultimately leads to cardiovascular disease, begins in childhood and young adulthood. This chapter describes the life course trajectories in ... More


Insulin as a Satiating Signal

DENNIS A. VANDERWEELE

in Satiation: From Gut to Brain

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195105155
eISBN:
9780199848263
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195105155.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter analyses the satiating effect of pancreatic insulin. A series of experiments aimed at assessing insulin as a putative prandial satiety factor have been made and the chapter identifies ... More


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