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Immune responses and the evolution of resistance

Jacob Koella

in Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199551354
eISBN:
9780191720505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter discusses the evolution of immune function. It emphasizes two points. First, the immune system is complex, with many responses that may act together or inhibit each other to determine ... More


Ecological and evolutionary implications of specific immune responses

Ben M. Sadd and Paul Schmid-Hempel

in Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199551354
eISBN:
9780191720505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter approaches the question of immune specificity from an evolutionary ecology perspective. For the sake of clarity, immune specificity is addressed on two levels. First, immune specificity ... More


The impact of physiological state on immune function in insects

Shelley A. Adamo

in Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199551354
eISBN:
9780191720505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter discusses how and why short-term changes in physiological state (i.e., the acute stress response) alter immune responsiveness in insects. It also explores the ramifications of these ... More


Physiological integration of innate immunity

David Schneider

in Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199551354
eISBN:
9780191720505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

Understanding how insect immunity is regulated requires studying the interactions of all those aspects of physiology that impact immunity. This includes both resistance and tolerance aspects of ... More


Costs and genomic aspects of Drosophila immunity to parasites and pathogens

Alex R. Kraaijeveld and Bregje Wertheim

in Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199551354
eISBN:
9780191720505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter begins by focusing on the parasites and pathogens known to attack or infect D. melanogaster (or other Drosophila species), from macro-parasites, such as parasitoids and mites to ... More


Population genetics of insect immune responses

Punita Juneja and Brian P. Lazzaro

in Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199551354
eISBN:
9780191720505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter examines the evolutionary genetics of immune defence, interpreting molecular evolutionary patterns in light of protein function to draw insight into how the immune response adapts to ... More


Immune and endocrine systems

Fabrizio Benedetti

in Placebo Effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199559121
eISBN:
9780191724022
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199559121.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The placebo effect in the immune and endocrine system is basically a conditioned response, whereby classical conditioning plays a key role. Conditioned immunosuppression affects a number of immune ... More


Neuroimmune Interactions That Operate In The Development And Progression Of Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases: Lessons From Pathogenesis Of Multiple Sclerosis

Enrico Fainardi and Massimiliano Castellazzi

in Neurovascular Medicine: Pursuing Cellular Longevity for Healthy Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195326697
eISBN:
9780199864874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326697.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination and axonal damage. The view of MS as a “two-stage ... More


Roles of haemolymph proteins in antimicrobial defences of Manduca sexta

Emily J. Ragan, Chunju An, Haobo Jiang, and Michael R. Kanost

in Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199551354
eISBN:
9780191720505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter discusses recent advances in our understanding of plasma proteins in the immune responses of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. It focuses on microbial pattern recognition proteins, ... More


Specificity of the innate immune system: a closer look at the mosquito pattern-recognition receptor repertoire

Suchismita Das, Yuemei Dong, Lindsey Garver, and George Dimopoulos

in Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199551354
eISBN:
9780191720505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

The insect innate immune system is encoded by three major functional categories of genes that are involved in (1) recognition of invading microbes; (2) immune-signal amplification and transduction; ... More


Comparative genomics of insect immunity

Fotis Kafatos, Robert Waterhouse, Evgeny Zdobnov, and George Christophides

in Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199551354
eISBN:
9780191720505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter compares the Drosophila group with mosquitoes and honeybees to disentangle common themes from specific components of immunity. Honeybees, for example, have a relatively small set of ... More


Parasitism and hostile environments

Richard C. Tinsley

in Parasitism and Ecosystems

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198529873
eISBN:
9780191712777
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529873.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

There is good physiological documentation of the survival of parasites (generally the ‘off-host’ stages) in environments that would be considered hostile to life and characterized by freezing, ... More


The inherited microbiota of arthropods, and their importance in understanding resistance and immunity

Gregory D.D. Hurst and Alistair C. Darby

in Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199551354
eISBN:
9780191720505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter begins with a brief review of the diversity of insect–symbiont interactions. It then proposes that symbionts are similar to constitutive defences: the insect always pays a metabolic ... More


Host defenses: the immune system and behavioral counterstrategies

Charles L. Nunn and Sonia Altizer

in Infectious Diseases in Primates: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780198565857
eISBN:
9780191728235
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565857.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter examines the host's response to parasitism by considering behavioural and immunological defences to infectious disease. It focuses on the individual level by considering how primate ... More


Drosophila as a model for studying antiviral defences

Jean-Luc Imler and Ioannis Eleftherianos

in Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199551354
eISBN:
9780191720505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This chapter reviews the progress made in the past few years on antiviral defence mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster, and discusses the relevance of these findings for our understanding of the ... More


Ecological immunology

Paul Schmid-Hempel

in Evolutionary Parasitology: The Integrated Study of Infections, Immunology, Ecology, and Genetics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199229482
eISBN:
9780191774744
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199229482.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter talks about certain observations and conclusions arrived at through the study of ecological immunology. The rate of parasitism and the level of immune response, for example, are often ... More


Reproductive immunity

Michael T. Siva-Jothy

in Insect Infection and Immunity: Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199551354
eISBN:
9780191720505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199551354.003.0015
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

One of the most predictable episodes of a female insect's life is the timing of mate-encounter and mating. This chapter proposes that females are often subjected to predictable wounding during mating ... More


Metals in the Environment as Risk Factors for Infectious Diseases: Gaps and Opportunities

M. Leigh Ackland, Julia Bornhorst, George V. Dedoussis, Rodney R. Dietert, Jerome O. Nriagu, Jozef M. Pacyna, and John M. Pettifor

in Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029193
eISBN:
9780262327619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.003.0017
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

By reducing immune function, trace metal deficiencies may substantially contribute to the global burden of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria. Human activities may be contributing to trace metal ... More


Impact of Metals on Immune Response and Tolerance, and Modulation of Metal Metabolism during Infection

Günter Weiss

in Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262029193
eISBN:
9780262327619
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Several metals play important roles in host cell and microbial metabolism because they form a part of central enzymes that are essential, for example, for DNA synthesis, cellular respiration, and key ... More


HIV-Specific Synergies

Eileen Stillwaggon

in AIDS and the Ecology of Poverty

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
February 2006
ISBN:
9780195169270
eISBN:
9780199783427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195169271.003.0003
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This chapter explains the biological synergies of malnutrition, parasitic and infectious diseases, and immune response that are specific to HIV transmission, and widespread among poor populations in ... More


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