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Physics of Ice

Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198518945
eISBN:
9780191707247
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Ice is one of the most abundant and environmentally important materials on Earth, and its unique and intriguing physical properties present fascinating areas of study. This book takes as its subject ... More


Frozen oceans in polar regions

David N. Thomas, G.E. (Tony) Fogg, Peter Convey, Christian H. Fritsen, Josep-Maria Gili, Rolf Gradinger, Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Keith Reid, and David W.H. Walton

in The Biology of Polar Regions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298112
eISBN:
9780191711640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298112.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Sea ice interposes a solid interface between two fluid phases, the biologically productive sea water and air. It modifies environmental conditions in the sea below and also provides a platform on ... More


Ice-based freshwater ecosystems

Ian Hawes, Clive Howard-Williams, and Andrew G. Fountain

in Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199213887
eISBN:
9780191707506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213887.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter describes the physical, chemical, and biotic features of the main types of ice-based aquatic ecosystems. Dark-coloured sediments on and in ice enhance absorption of solar radiation, ... More


Antarctic subglacial water: origin, evolution, and ecology

John C. Priscu, Slawek Tulaczyk, Michael Studinger, Mahlon C. Kennicutt II, Brent C. Christner, and Christine M. Foreman

in Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199213887
eISBN:
9780191707506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213887.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

This chapter provides up-to-date coverage on the geophysical, chemical, and biological properties of the lakes that lie beneath the Antarctic ice cap (subglacial lakes). There are at least 150 lakes ... More


Glacial habitats in polar regions

David N. Thomas, G.E. (Tony) Fogg, Peter Convey, Christian H. Fritsen, Josep-Maria Gili, Rolf Gradinger, Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Keith Reid, and David W.H. Walton

in The Biology of Polar Regions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298112
eISBN:
9780191711640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298112.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses microbial presence and diversity in glacial ice habitats. Topics covered include life in the interior of polar ice sheets and glaciers, life at the margin, and the snow alga ... More


A Brief Overview of Recent Climate Change and Its Ecological Context

Eric Post

in Ecology of Climate Change: The Importance of Biotic Interactions

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691148472
eISBN:
9781400846139
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691148472.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This introductory chapter summarizes the most prominent abiotic components of recent climate change to establish the environmental context from which the discussion in the rest of the book proceeds. ... More


The physical limnology of high-latitude lakes

Warwick F. Vincent, Sally MacIntyre, Robert H. Spigel, and Isabelle Laurion

in Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199213887
eISBN:
9780191707506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213887.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Aquatic Biology

The physical environment of high latitude lakes exerts a wide-ranging influence on their aquatic ecology. Certain features of Arctic and Antarctic lakes — such as prolonged ice cover and ... More


Climate change in polar regions

David N. Thomas, G.E. (Tony) Fogg, Peter Convey, Christian H. Fritsen, Josep-Maria Gili, Rolf Gradinger, Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Keith Reid, and David W.H. Walton

in The Biology of Polar Regions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298112
eISBN:
9780191711640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298112.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The polar regions have undergone major changes in configuration of land masses and climate over millions of years. However, it is the geologically brief period beginning around 120,000 years before ... More


Marine benthos in polar regions

David N. Thomas, G.E. (Tony) Fogg, Peter Convey, Christian H. Fritsen, Josep-Maria Gili, Rolf Gradinger, Johanna Laybourn-Parry, Keith Reid, and David W.H. Walton

in The Biology of Polar Regions

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199298112
eISBN:
9780191711640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298112.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter discusses the marine benthos. Topics covered include the littoral zone, the shallow sublittoral zone, the benthos of deep waters, benthos under ice shelves, and seasonality and dynamics ... More


Dynamic Feedbacks and Accelerating Changes

Robin M. Leichenko and Karen L. O'Brien

in Environmental Change and Globalization: Double Exposures

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195177329
eISBN:
9780199869800
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195177329.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter explores linkages and feedbacks between global environmental change and globalization. It first shows how interactions between the two processes may enhance global connectivities and ... More


The other phases of ice

Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

in Physics of Ice

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198518945
eISBN:
9780191707247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

The water substance exhibits at least 13 crystalline phases. These are denoted by roman numerals such as ice II. Many are stable in particular regions of the pressure — temperature phase diagram ... More


Crop management in the classical and medieval periods

Denis J. Murphy

in People, Plants and Genes: The Story of Crops and Humanity

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199207145
eISBN:
9780191708893
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199207145.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

The classical and medieval periods of 1800 BCE to 1500 CE were characterized by some limited technical innovation in agriculture, but little progress was made in crop improvement as global ... More


ICE

D. Eisenberg and W. Kauzmann

in The Structure and Properties of Water

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570264
eISBN:
9780191715266
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570264.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter describes the structure of ordinary ice and what is known of the structures of its polymorphs. It then outlines the thermodynamic, electrical, and spectroscopic properties of ice, and ... More


Lethal temperature limits

Steven L. Chown and Sue W. Nicolson

in Insect Physiological Ecology: Mechanisms and Patterns

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198515494
eISBN:
9780191705649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515494.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Temperature change has an effect on many physiological processes and insects frequently evolve strategies to overcome the rate, sub-lethal or lethal effects of temperature variation. This chapter ... More


Statement B and the Yang-Baxter Equation

Ben Brubaker, Daniel Bump, and Solomon Friedberg

in Weyl Group Multiple Dirichlet Series: Type A Combinatorial Theory (AM-175)

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691150659
eISBN:
9781400838998
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691150659.003.0019
Subject:
Mathematics, Combinatorics / Graph Theory / Discrete Mathematics

This chapter reinterprets Statements A and B in a different context, and yet again directly proves that the reinterpreted Statement B implies the reinterpreted Statement A in Theorem 19.10. The ... More


Gallia Est Omnis Divisa In Partes Quattuor

Neil Calkin and Colm Mulcahy

in The Mathematics of Various Entertaining Subjects: Research in Recreational Math

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691164038
eISBN:
9781400881338
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691164038.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, History of Mathematics

This chapter presents a single unified proof for a certain move that could be performed on packets of cards which, when repeated four times, brought the cards back to their initial arrangement. That ... More


Ice in nature

Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

in Physics of Ice

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198518945
eISBN:
9780191707247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

This chapter surveys the many forms in which ice occur in nature. Lake and river ice have characteristic polycrystalline structures and these are different from sea ice. In the atmosphere water ... More


Icehouse Earth

Toby Tyrrell

in On Gaia: A Critical Investigation of the Relationship between Life and Earth

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691121581
eISBN:
9781400847914
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691121581.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

This chapter compares the life that evolution produced during the past cold and warm climates of long duration. The dominant climatic state of the last several million years has been ice ages. James ... More


Ice Ih

Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

in Physics of Ice

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198518945
eISBN:
9780191707247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Ice Ih is the normal form of ice obtained by freezing water. This chapter describes its basic physical properties (melting point, density, and vapour pressure), together with ways of preparing single ... More


Electrical properties—experimental

Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth

in Physics of Ice

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198518945
eISBN:
9780191707247
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198518945.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

After reviewing the experimental techniques used to study the electrical properties of ice, this chapter describes measurements of dielectric relaxation and conductivity on ‘pure’ ice and their ... More


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