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Bayesian Statistical Inference for Psychological Research

Jie W Weiss and David J Weiss

in A Science of Decision Making: The Legacy of Ward Edwards

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195322989
eISBN:
9780199869206
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195322989.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter introduces psychologists to the Bayesian outlook in statistics. Bayesian statistics is based on a definition of probability as a particular measure of the opinions of ideally consistent ... More


Strategic Learning and its Limits

H. Peyton Young

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199269181
eISBN:
9780191699375
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199269181.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This book is based on the Arne Ryde Lectures in 2002. The book suggests a conceptual framework for studying strategic learning and highlights theoretical developments in the area. It discusses the ... More


All Hypotheses Are Not Created Equal

Rein Taagepera

in Making Social Sciences More Scientific: The Need for Predictive Models

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199534661
eISBN:
9780191715921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534661.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

The null hypothesis offers close to null prediction. Directional hypotheses are relatively easy to satisfy and offer correspondingly vague predictions. Quantitative hypotheses (models) are hard to ... More


Asking the right question

Marian Stamp Dawkins

in Observing Animal Behaviour: design and analysis of quantitative data

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198569350
eISBN:
9780191717512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569350.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Fundamental to the success of any research project is asking the right question in the first place. In this chapter, Tinbergen's four questions about adaptation, causation, development, and evolution ... More


Classical Statistical Inference

Željko Ivezi, Andrew J. Connolly, Jacob T. VanderPlas, Alexander Gray, Željko Ivezi, Andrew J. Connolly, Jacob T. VanderPlas, and Alexander Gray

in Statistics, Data Mining, and Machine Learning in Astronomy: A Practical Python Guide for the Analysis of Survey Data

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151687
eISBN:
9781400848911
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151687.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter introduces the main concepts of statistical inference, or drawing conclusions from data. There are three main types of inference: point estimation, confidence estimation, and hypothesis ... More


Testing

Qin Duo

in The Formation of Econometrics: A Historical Perspective

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198292876
eISBN:
9780191596803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198292872.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought, Econometrics

Addresses the issue of testing, and reveals some intrinsic problems pertaining to hypothesis testing beneath the achievements of formalizing econometrics. Theory verification through applied studies ... More


Testing and Evaluation

David F. Hendry

in Dynamic Econometrics

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198283164
eISBN:
9780191596384
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198283164.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

The non‐central chi‐squared distribution frequently results when hypothesis testing, so the large‐sample properties of such tests are analysed for sequences of local alternatives. Test power depends ... More


Hypothesis Testing

H. Peyton Young

in Strategic Learning and its Limits

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199269181
eISBN:
9780191699375
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199269181.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter discusses a model of cognitive learning that is based on the idea of ‘schemas’, and shows how it can be formalized and brought to bear on learning in strategic situations. Hypothesis ... More


On Crises, Myths, and Measurement

Francis G. Castles

in The Future of the Welfare State: Crisis Myths and Crisis Realities

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2004
ISBN:
9780199270170
eISBN:
9780191601514
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199270171.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

Explores the themes of what follows. It argues that the welfare state literature of the past quarter century has been big on crisis theories of the welfare state and much weaker on facts. The chapter ... More


Why Rare Things Are Precious: How Rarity Benefits Inference

Craig R. M. McKenzie and Valerie M. Chase

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0089
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

This chapter reviews evidence showing that people are remarkably sensitive to the rarity of events when making inferences about them. Indeed, people are so attuned to event rarity that their implicit ... More


Statistical Protocols

Partha P. Mitra and Hemant Bokil

in Observed Brain Dynamics

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195178081
eISBN:
9780199864829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178081.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter provides a mini-review of classical and modern statistical methods for data analysis. Topics covered include method of least squares, data visualization, point estimation, interval ... More


Case Selection and Hypothesis Testing

Gary Goertz and James Mahoney

in A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691149707
eISBN:
9781400845446
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691149707.003.0014
Subject:
Sociology, Social Research and Statistics

This chapter discusses quantitative and qualitative practices of case-study selection when the goal of the analysis is to evaluate causal hypotheses. More specifically, it considers how the different ... More


Model Construction Revisited

Qin Duo

in The Formation of Econometrics: A Historical Perspective

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198292876
eISBN:
9780191596803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198292872.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought, Econometrics

Looks at problems associated with econometric model construction for the period immediately after the formative phase, and tries to link up the previous chapters and to show what has been left ... More


Linear Structural Equation Models

Steffen Kühnel

in Research Strategies in the Social Sciences: A Guide to New Approaches

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198292371
eISBN:
9780191600159
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198292376.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Reference

Extending the regression model to path analysis, in which all the variables are randomly distributed and treating the variances and co‐variances as exogenous variables. The worked example ... More


From Descriptive to Predictive Approaches

Rein Taagepera

in Making Social Sciences More Scientific: The Need for Predictive Models

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199534661
eISBN:
9780191715921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534661.003.0014
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Economy

Routine statistical approaches are essentially descriptive, giving answers within a narrow range of questions. Quantitatively formulated logical model force us to ask further questions and are ... More


Integrated Objective Bayesian Estimation and Hypothesis Testing

José M. Bernardo

in Bayesian Statistics 9

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199694587
eISBN:
9780191731921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

The complete final product of Bayesian inference is the posterior distribution of the quantity of interest. Important inference summaries include point estimation, region estimation and precise ... More


Decision Theory and Bayesian Inference

Luc Bauwens, Michel Lubrano, and Jean-François Richard

in Bayesian Inference in Dynamic Econometric Models

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780198773122
eISBN:
9780191695315
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198773122.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter discusses the relationship between mathematical statistics, decision theory, and the application of Bayesian inference to econometrics. It analyses the Bayesian approach to decision ... More


When all you need is one

Marian Stamp Dawkins

in Observing Animal Behaviour: design and analysis of quantitative data

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198569350
eISBN:
9780191717512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569350.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Sometimes single observations, such as the sighting of an animal thought to be extinct, or a chimpanzee making tools, are enough to change forever the way people think about the world. This chapter ... More


Critical Distance: Stabilising Evidential Claims in Archaeology

ALISON WYLIE

in Evidence, Inference and Enquiry

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264843
eISBN:
9780191754050
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264843.003.0014
Subject:
Sociology, Methodology and Statistics

This chapter adopts a philosophical perspective on evidential reasoning in archaeology. It argues that strong relativist and scientistic positions in debates within anthropological archaeology are ... More


Negative Selection and the Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution

Norman A. Johnson

in Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195306750
eISBN:
9780199790203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306750.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Natural selection is not the only evolutionary “force” that can alter frequencies of genetic variants; random genetic drift (a sampling process) persistently changes the gene pool of populations, ... More


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