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Measuring overall population health: the use and abuse of QALYs

Richard Cookson and Anthony Culyer

in Evidence-based Public Health: Effectiveness and efficiency

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199563623
eISBN:
9780191722554
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199563623.003.010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter begins by explaining how Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is produced, setting out the basic arithmetic of the QALY, and then describing how QALYs incorporate evidence on health-related ... More


Ethnicity, Race, and Health in Multicultural Societies: Foundations for better epidemiology, public health, and health care

Raj S. Bhopal

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198568179
eISBN:
9780191724091
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568179.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Most of the industrialized world now comprises of multi-ethnic societies, with people from widely varying ancestry, cultures, languages, and beliefs. With globalization of trade, increasing ... More


Irrational and Rational Beliefs and Physical Health

Julie B. Schnur, Guy H. Montgomery, and Daniel David

in Rational and Irrational Beliefs: Research, Theory, and Clinical Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195182231
eISBN:
9780199870684
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182231.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter proposes a theoretical model that could potentially increase our understanding of the effects of irrational beliefs on health outcomes. It has been written that REBT “is perhaps the only ... More


Health and Well-Being

Maureen Duffy and Len Sperry

in Mobbing: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195380019
eISBN:
9780199932764
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380019.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter presents the extensive and growing body of research linking negative physical and psychological health outcomes to exposure to mobbing and other abusive workplace behaviors. A ... More


Economic Evaluation in Child Health

Wendy Ungar (ed.)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199547494
eISBN:
9780191720055
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547494.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

As the conduct of health economic evaluations to inform health budget decision-making becomes more common, the special challenges of measuring costs and health consequences in children, from neonate ... More


Helping Behavior and Longevity: An Emotion Model

Deborah D. Danner, Wallace V. Friesen, and Adah N. Carter

in Altruism and Health: Perspectives from Empirical Research

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195182910
eISBN:
9780199786794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182910.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter examines a possible mechanism to account for why helping behaviours might have positive health outcomes. It argues that positive emotional responses, particularly future-oriented ... More


Is more aggressive treatment of pediatric traumatic brain injury worth it?

J. Mick Tilford and Ali I. Raja

in Economic Evaluation in Child Health

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199547494
eISBN:
9780191720055
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547494.003.09
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem worldwide and is often referred to as the ‘silent epidemic’. The uncertainty faced by clinicians in treating children with severe brain injuries ... More


Should health gains by children be given the same value as health gains by adults in an economic evaluation framework?

Stavros Petrou

in Economic Evaluation in Child Health

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199547494
eISBN:
9780191720055
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199547494.003.15
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Evidence suggesting that a unit of health gain by a child is not of equal value to a unit of health gain by an adult would suggest that age should be considered as an important criterion in health ... More


Forgiveness and Health: A Review and Theoretical Exploration of Emotion Pathways

Charlotte V. O. Witvliet and Michael E. McCullough

in Altruism and Health: Perspectives from Empirical Research

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195182910
eISBN:
9780199786794
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182910.003.0017
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter addresses the possible health connections of forgiveness, which is defined as an unusual expression of altruistic love that can only occur after a person has first suffered harm from an ... More


Life course development of unequal health

Chris Power and Diana Kuh

in Social Inequalities in Health: New evidence and policy implications

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198568162
eISBN:
9780191724107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568162.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter addresses the questions: Do exposures earlier in life influence the development of inequalities in adult health outcomes? How much of the adult socio-economic gradient is explained by ... More


The Examination of Neighborhood Effects on Health: Conceptual and Methodological Issues Related to the Presence of Multiple Levels of Organization

Ana V. Diez Roux

in Neighborhoods and Health

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195138382
eISBN:
9780199865505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195138382.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The investigation of neighborhood effects on health raises a series of conceptual and methodological issues related to the presence of observations at a lower level (e.g., individuals) nested within ... More


Epidemiological Studies of the Relationship Between Musical Experiences and Public Health

Töres Theorell and Gunter Kreutz

in Music, Health, and Wellbeing

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199586974
eISBN:
9780191738357
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199586974.003.0028
Subject:
Psychology, Music Psychology, Health Psychology

Public health epidemiology aims at scientific descriptions of relationships between life conditions and public health in different groups of people. Such approaches suggest relationships between a ... More


Neighborhood-Level Context and Health: Lessons from Sociology

Robert J. Sampson

in Neighborhoods and Health

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195138382
eISBN:
9780199865505
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195138382.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

A new generation of neighborhood-level research has emerged in recent years to address the question of why so many health-related outcomes are concentrated ecologically. This chapter highlights the ... More


What works in tackling health inequalities?: Pathways, policies and practice through the lifecourse

Sheena Asthana

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861346742
eISBN:
9781447304258
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861346742.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

In recent years, tackling health inequalities has become a key policy objective in the UK. However, doubts remain about how best to translate broad policy recommendations into practice. One key area ... More


Early life and health inequalities: research evidence

Sheena Asthana and Joyce Halliday

in What works in tackling health inequalities?: Pathways, policies and practice through the lifecourse

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861346742
eISBN:
9781447304258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861346742.003.0004
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter considers research evidence that links early life factors to adverse health outcomes and discusses the significance of early life experiences to health inequalities. It suggests that it ... More


Different People, Different Services?

Judith Healy and Martin McKee

in Accessing Healthcare: Responding to diversity

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198516187
eISBN:
9780191723681
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198516187.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The book draws upon the principles of equity and responsiveness. A country should concern itself with the health outcomes of diverse groups within its population for several reasons: legal rights, ... More


Life Conditions and Health in Early Farmers: A Global Perspective on Costs and Consequences of a Fundamental Transition

Clark Spencer Larsen

in Early Farmers: The View from Archaeology and Science

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780197265758
eISBN:
9780191771965
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265758.003.0012
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

Human remains provide a fund of data for documenting and interpreting the quality of life, living conditions, and the costs and benefits of the foraging-to-farming transition and the dependence on ... More


Socio-economic differences in health: Are control beliefs fundamental mediators?

Hans Bosma

in Social Inequalities in Health: New evidence and policy implications

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198568162
eISBN:
9780191724107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568162.003.0007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter addresses the role of control beliefs in socio-economic differences in health and provides support for the assumption that low control beliefs might be fundamental mediators in the ... More


The shape of things to come: How social policy impacts social integration and family structure to produce population health

Lisa F. Berkman and Maria Melchior

in Social Inequalities in Health: New evidence and policy implications

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198568162
eISBN:
9780191724107
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568162.003.0003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter briefly reviews the evidence linking social networks to health outcomes, primarily mortality, across countries with special attention to data from the US and France. It discusses the ... More


Emotion, Social Relationships, and Health

Carol D. Ryff and Burton Singer (eds)

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195145410
eISBN:
9780199848201
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195145410.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Social Psychology

A growing literature on humans and animals documents linkages between social integration and various health outcomes, including mortality. The actual mechanisms ... More


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