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Segregation or Choice?: From Merchants to Moneylenders, 1000–1500

Maristella Botticini and Zvi Eckstein

in The Chosen Few: How Education Shaped Jewish History, 70-1492

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691144870
eISBN:
9781400842483
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691144870.003.0009
Subject:
Religion, Judaism

This chapter assesses the argument that both their exclusion from craft and merchant guilds and usury bans on Christians segregated European Jews into moneylending during the Middle Ages. Already ... More


Mafia Ancestors: The Vory‐V‐Zakone, 1920s–1950s

Federico Varese

in The Russian Mafia: Private Protection in a New Market Economy

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198297369
eISBN:
9780191600272
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/019829736X.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Russian Politics

The first section of the chapter describes the main features of the original society of the vory-v-zakone – thieves-with-a-code-of-honour – the criminal fraternity that flourished in the Soviet ... More


Widows

SHEILAGH OGILVIE

in A Bitter Living: Women, Markets, and Social Capital in Early Modern Germany

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198205548
eISBN:
9780191719219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198205548.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Early Modern History

This chapter investigates the economic position of widows in the pre-industrial German society under analysis in this book. Patterns of widows' work are distilled from a database of work observations ... More


Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

David M Wilkinson

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This book raises and attempts to answer the following thought experiment: ‘For any planet with carbon-based life, which persists over geological time-scales, what is the minimum set of ecological ... More


Liberties and Litigation

James E. Shaw

in The Justice of Venice: Authorities and Liberties in the Urban Economy, 1550-1700

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197263778
eISBN:
9780191734823
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197263778.003.0005
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The guilds were essential allies in the operation of the regulatory system, which can be considered an early-modern example of a public/private partnership. Not only were the guilds the chief ... More


Establishing and Registering Identity in the Dutch Republic1

Henk Looijesteijn and Marco H. D. Van Leeuwen

in Registration and Recognition: Documenting the Person in World History

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780197265314
eISBN:
9780191760402
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197265314.003.0009
Subject:
History, World Modern History

The Dutch Republic had a broad range of means to establish an individual's identity, and a rudimentary ‘system’ of identity registration, essentially established at the local levels of town and ... More


Multiple guilds

David M. Wilkinson

in Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The problems faced by a hypothetical planet with only one species strongly suggest that any functioning ecological system must have organisms from at least two major ecological guilds: autotrophs and ... More


The Emergence of a Regional Framework in the Early and High Middle Ages: Power, Property, and Social Structures

Bas van Bavel

in Manors and Markets: Economy and Society in the Low Countries 500-1600

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199278664
eISBN:
9780191707032
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199278664.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Medieval History

Each region received its specific social organization during the process of occupation in the early and high Middle Ages. This chapter discusses the social distribution of power and property, and ... More


Company of Kinsmen: Enterprise and Community in South Asian History 1700-1940

Tirthankar Roy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
October 2012
ISBN:
9780198063780
eISBN:
9780199080144
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198063780.001.0001
Subject:
History, Economic History

This book chronicles how the concept of organizing people to serve economic ends emerged in early modern and colonial India. It examines rules of cooperation, why people decided to join forces, how ... More


The Single Woman in Guild Texts

Cordelia Beattie

in Medieval Single Women: The Politics of Social Classification in Late Medieval England

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199283415
eISBN:
9780191712616
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199283415.003.0005
Subject:
History, British and Irish Medieval History

This chapter first considers what prompts the use of the category ‘single woman’ in some guild returns of 1388-9. The contention is that the category carries with it connotations of the legal ... More


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