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Knowledge Ascriptions and Gradability

Jason Stanley

in Knowledge and Practical Interests

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199288038
eISBN:
9780191603679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199288038.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Many expressions in natural language, such as adjectives like tall and flat, or verbs such as like and regret are gradable, meaning that they occur in comparative constructions. It makes sense to ... More


Gradability in Natural Language: Logical and Grammatical Foundations

Heather Burnett

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198724797
eISBN:
9780191792298
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198724797.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics, Syntax and Morphology

This monograph presents a new theory of the relationship between vagueness, context sensitivity, gradability, and scale structure in natural language. The book argues that particular subclasses of ... More


Between Logic and the World: An Integrated Theory of Generics

Bernhard Nickel

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199640003
eISBN:
9780191822049
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199640003.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Between Logic and the World presents a theory of generic sentences and the kind–directed modes of thought they express. Generics are generalizations we use in the everyday and the higher-level ... More


Coda: Onward, Upward, Inward, Outward

Bernhard Nickel

in Between Logic and the World: An Integrated Theory of Generics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199640003
eISBN:
9780191822049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199640003.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

A brief summary of the book and an indication for directions opened up by the theory presented.


Thick Concepts and Underdetermination

Pekka Väyrynen

in Thick Concepts

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199672349
eISBN:
9780191751325
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672349.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics, Moral Philosophy

Thick terms and concepts in ethics (for example, ‘selfish’, ‘cruel’ and ‘courageous’) somehow combine evaluation and non-evaluative description. The non-evaluative aspects of thick terms and concepts ... More


Thick Concepts and Underdetermination

Pekka Väyrynen

in The Lewd, the Rude and the Nasty: A Study of Thick Concepts in Ethics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199314751
eISBN:
9780199369225
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199314751.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The chapter considers arguments that global evaluations are needed in determining the extensions of thick terms and concepts and that this supports treating them as inherently evaluative in meaning. ... More


Thick Concepts and Variability

Pekka Väyrynen

in The Lewd, the Rude and the Nasty: A Study of Thick Concepts in Ethics

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199314751
eISBN:
9780199369225
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199314751.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The chapter presents an alternative argument for treating the relationship between thick terms and concepts and evaluation as pragmatic: if thick concepts are contextually variable in their ... More


Dutchmen are Good Sailors: Generics and Gradability ∗

Bernhard Nickel

in Genericity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199691807
eISBN:
9780191745775
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691807.003.0016
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

Many generics have quite strong interpretations. Ravens are black is naturally paraphrased as all normal ravens are black. However, there is a sundry ... More


Linguistic Issues

Michael Blome-Tillmann

in Knowledge and Presuppositions

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
August 2014
ISBN:
9780199686087
eISBN:
9780191766046
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199686087.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter discusses four objections to ‘generic’ or ‘bare’ epistemic contextualism. According to the Semantic Blindness Objection, contextualism is committed to an implausible error-theory—namely, ... More


Investigating Gradable Predicates, Comparison, and Degree Constructions in Underrepresented Languages

M. Ryan Bochnak and Elizabeth Bogal-Allbritten

in Methodologies in Semantic Fieldwork

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780190212339
eISBN:
9780190212353
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190212339.003.0005
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter presents some methods for investigating the semantics of gradability and comparison in the field. The methods described address some of the major challenges faced by the fieldworker ... More


Intentional action and the semantics of gradable expressions (On the Knobe Effect)

Paul Egré

in Causation in Grammatical Structures

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
March 2015
ISBN:
9780199672073
eISBN:
9780191751240
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672073.003.0008
Subject:
Linguistics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter is about the Knobe Effect, an asymmetry concerning attributions of intentional action in ordinary language. What the effect is argued to show is that judgments about intention and ... More


Introduction

Heather Burnett

in Gradability in Natural Language: Logical and Grammatical Foundations

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780198724797
eISBN:
9780191792298
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198724797.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics, Syntax and Morphology

This chapter gives an introduction to the main topics studied in this work. This book presents a new theory of the relationship between vagueness, context sensitivity, and scale structure in natural ... More


Adjective and adverb inflection

Laurie Bauer, Rochelle Lieber, and Ingo Plag

in The Oxford Reference Guide to English Morphology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780198747062
eISBN:
9780191809323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747062.003.0006
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology, English Language

This chapter is concerned with the formation of comparatives and superlatives in English. First the semantic issues involved with comparison are discussed, then the properties of affixal ... More


Gradation, scales, and degree semantics

Daniel Lassiter

in Graded Modality: Qualitative and Quantitative Perspectives

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780198701347
eISBN:
9780191770616
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198701347.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics, Computational Linguistics

Since many modal expressions in English are overtly gradable, we need to understand gradability in general if we are to understand their semantics. This chapter introduces a number of core notions in ... More


Derived adjectives

Laurie Bauer, Rochelle Lieber, and Ingo Plag

in The Oxford Reference Guide to English Morphology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780198747062
eISBN:
9780191809323
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198747062.003.0014
Subject:
Linguistics, Syntax and Morphology, English Language

This chapter considers the full range of affixes that derive adjectives in contemporary English (‑able, ‑al, ‑an, ‑ant,‑ary, ‑esque, ‑ful, ‑ic, ‑ical, ‑ine, ‑ing, ‑ish, ‑ive,‑ly, ‑oid, ‑ory, ‑ous, ... More


Explaining Reasons

Stephen Finlay

in Confusion of Tongues: A Theory of Normative Language

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2014
ISBN:
9780199347490
eISBN:
9780199347513
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199347490.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter offers a unifying semantics for ‘reason’ as used in talk about explanatory reasons, normative reasons, and motivating reasons. The word is analyzed as meaning explanation why, and ... More


Genericity and Gradability

Bernhard Nickel

in Between Logic and the World: An Integrated Theory of Generics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780199640003
eISBN:
9780191822049
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199640003.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter studies the interaction of genericity with gradable predicates such as good. It shows that the account developed in this bookcan smoothly handle examples that are widely cited as ... More


Extreme and Non-extreme Deontic Modals

Paul Portner and Aynat Rubinstein

in Deontic Modality

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198717928
eISBN:
9780191787393
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717928.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Paul Portner and Aynat Rubinstein’s chapter shows that there are strong parallels between strong and weak necessity modals (‘must’ vs ‘should’, ‘crucial’ vs ‘important’), on the one hand, and extreme ... More


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