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Simple Molecules That Turn You On and Off

Gary L. Wenk

in Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195388541
eISBN:
9780199863587
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195388541.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

Glutamate is an amino acid that your brain uses as a neurotransmitter and it is almost always is excitatory. GABA is also an amino acid that your brain uses as a neurotransmitter and it is almost ... More


Overview and Perspective

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

L-Glutamate (Glu) is the most prevalent neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and is responsible for mediating the majority of its excitatory signaling. From the start, ... More


Glutamatergic Signaling In Neurogenesis

Noritaka Nakamichi and Yukio Yoneda

in Neurovascular Medicine: Pursuing Cellular Longevity for Healthy Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195326697
eISBN:
9780199864874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326697.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter summarizes recent studies on the functional expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) by neural progenitor cells isolated from ... More


Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Hoby Hetherington

in Neuroimaging in Epilepsy

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195342765
eISBN:
9780199863617
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342765.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) enable the noninvasive regional assessment of major metabolites in the human brain including: N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), ... More


The Relationship between Dopaminergic Axons and Glutamatergic Synapses in the Striatum: Structural Considerations

Jonathan Moss and J. Paul Bolam

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

This chapter summarizes data on the anatomical substrate of the interaction between both glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses and thalamostriatal synapses with dopaminergic axons and terminals in ... More


Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Robert Balazs, Richard J. Bridges, and Carl W. Cotman

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This book provides a comprehensive, easy-to-read survey of excitatory amino acids and synaptic transmission. It begins with descriptions of the structure, function, and pharmacology of both the ... More


Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a distinct family of excitatory amino acid receptors. Unlike the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), which constitute cation-specific ion channels ... More


Glutamate Transporters

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

The ability of glutamate (Glu) to contribute to physiological processes ranging from fast excitatory signaling to synaptic plasticity and neuropathology depends on the considerable diversity that ... More


Molecular Organization of Glutamate Receptors in the Postsynaptic Density

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

A significant advance in the field of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmission has been the great progress made toward elucidation of the molecular composition and function of the postsynaptic ... More


Glutamate and Glutamate Receptors in Neurological Diseases

ROBERT BALÁZS, RICHARD J. BRIDGES, and CARL W. COTMAN

in Excitatory Amino Acid Transmission in Health and Disease

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195150025
eISBN:
9780199865079
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150025.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Although glutamate (Glu) normally functions as a neurotransmitter, excess Glu can be harmful and can cause cells to degenerate. Glutamate can cause neuronal cell death by a mechanism referred to as ... More


Molecular biology of postsynaptic structures

Flaminio Cattabeni, Fabrizio Gardoni, and Monica Di Luca

in Molecular Biology of the Neuron

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198509981
eISBN:
9780191723810
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198509981.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The neurotransmitter glutamate mediates the majority of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Excitatory glutamatergic synapses feature a prominent thickening at the cytoplasmic surface of ... More


The Developing Brain and Adolescent-Typical Behavior Patterns: An Evolutionary Approach

Linda Spear

in Adolescent Psychopathology and the Developing Brain: Integrating Brain and Prevention Science

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195306255
eISBN:
9780199863914
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306255.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter reviews current knowledge about the adolescent period from the perspective of evolutionary biology and the study of mammals, including humans. It highlights the universal characteristics ... More


Shigetada Nakanishi

Larry R. Squire

in The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography Volume 6

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195380101
eISBN:
9780199864362
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380101.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter presents an autobiography of Shigetada Nakanishi. Nakanishi's early studies elucidated the characteristic precursor architectures of various neuropeptides and vasoactive peptides by ... More


Synaptic Function

Kullmann Dimitri

in The Hippocampus Book

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195100273
eISBN:
9780199864133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195100273.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter considers how the release of glutamate from presynaptic terminals in the hippocampus and its action on various glutamatergic receptors mediate excitatory synaptic transmission. It ... More


Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Function in the Hippocampus: Neurotransmitter Exocytosis and Glutamatergic, GABAergic, and Cholinergic Transmission

Osten Pavel, Wisden William, and Sprengel Rolf

in The Hippocampus Book

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195100273
eISBN:
9780199864133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195100273.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the molecular biology of hippocampal cells with particular emphasis on synaptic function. It starts by describing the basis of all signal transmission processes, the release of ... More


Astrocyte Neurotransmitter Uptake

Raymond A. Swanson

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0027
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

The action of neurotransmitters can be terminated by cleavage, diffusion, binding, or cellular uptake. In some cases, uptake is accomplished by glial cells localized at or near the synapse. Glial ... More


The Central Role of Astrocytes in Neuroenergetics

Luc Pellerin and Pierre J. Magistretti

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0029
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter reviews astrocyte function in the maintenance metabolic homeostasis. Astrocytes play essential roles in coupling neuronal activity to energy metabolism, both through their participation ... More


Neurochemical Tempest

R. Walter Heinrichs

in In Search of Madness: Schizophrenia and Neuroscience

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195122190
eISBN:
9780199865482
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195122190.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter focuses on what may be the most widely acknowledged scientific fact about schizophrenia: most patients' symptoms improve in response to dopamine-blocking antipsychotic medication. It ... More


Chemical transmission at the squid giant synapse

J. B. Messemger, A. De Santis, and D. C. Ogden

in Cephalopod Neurobiology: Neuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547907
eISBN:
9780191724299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.003.0192
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

This chapter discusses some recent experiments suggesting that l-glutamate is very probably an endogenous transmitter at the synapse, including the first demonstration that glutamate, when abruptly ... More


Ampa/kainate receptors

Nicole L. Stricker and Richard L. Huganir

in Receptor and Ion-Channel Trafficking: Cell Biology of Ligand-Gated and Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192632241
eISBN:
9780191724763
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192632241.003.0006
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The three major types of ionotropic glutamate receptors are the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDAR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPAR), and kainate (KAR) receptors. AM PARs and ... More


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