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Neuron–glial interactions

Barbara A. Barres

in Molecular and Cellular Approaches to Neural Development

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195111668
eISBN:
9780199865833
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195111668.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Development

This chapter reviews recent studies that suggest that it is no longer tenable to consider glial cells as passive support cells. These studies have shown that interactions between neurons and glial ... More


Glia and Synaptic Transmission

Eric A. Newman

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0028
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter reviews recent evidence defining glial-neuronal interactions at the tripartite synapse. Topics covered include structure of the tripartite synapse, neuronal activation of glial cells, ... More


Voltage-Activated Ion Channels in Glial Cells

Michelle L. Olsen and Harald W. Sontheimer

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter discusses voltage-activated ion channels in glial cells, including sodium channels, calcium channels, and potassium channels. Studies have proven that glial cells contain a large variety ... More


Radial Glial Cells: Scaffolding for Cortical Development and Evolution

Pasko Rakic

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0031
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

Radial glial cells derive from the neuroepithelial cells during restricted developmental periods in most regions of the vertebrate brain. The diversity of functions and the variety of morphogenetic ... More


The Role of Neurogenic Astroglial Cells in the Developing and Adult Central Nervous System

Stephen C. Noctor, Lidija Ivic, Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño, and Arnold R. Kriegstein

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on the role of neurogenic astroglial cells in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent findings have elucidated a more complex role for astroglial cells in the ... More


The Schwann Cell Lineage

Kristján R. Jessen and Rhona Mirsky

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on Schwann cells. Topics discussed include Schwann cell development, the use of markers to identify distinct stages of embryonic Schwann cell development, the origin of glial ... More


Extracellular Potassium and pH: Homeostasis and Signaling

Jonathan A. Coles and Joachim W. Deitmer

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0026
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on signaling and homeostasis. Electrical signaling in nervous systems involves considerable fluxes of ions across the neuronal membranes to carry electrical charge in and out. ... More


The Concept of Neuroglia: A Historical Perspective

Helmut Kettenmann and Bruce R. Ransom

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter provides a historical perspective that highlights the early period of glial research. Topics covered include Virchow's invention of the term neuroglia in 1856, Heinrich Müller' picture ... More


Transplantation of Myelin-Forming Cells

William F. Blakemore and Robin J.M. Franklin

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0038
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter is divided into two sections. The first explores methodological and conceptual issues that are important when designing and interpreting glial cell transplantation studies. The second ... More


The role of glia in the development of the insect nervous system

Vanessa J. Auld

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

The glial cells of insects have been investigated since the days of Ramón y Cajal. Consequently there is a wealth of information about a range of insects and the different classes of their glia. This ... More


Cytoskeletal Proteins in Astroglia

Lawrence F. Eng and Yuen Ling Lee

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

The cytoskeleton is essential for many cellular processes, including mechanical strength, movement, adhesion, polarity, and intracellular trafficking. The cytoplasm of animal cells is structured by ... More


Receptors for Neurotransmitters and Hormones

Helmut Kettenmann and Christian Steinhäuser

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0010
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on the receptors expressed by different types of glial cells for neurotransmitters and hormones. Topics discussed include astrocytes (e.g., ionotropic glutamate receptors, ... More


Gap Junctions and Hemichannels

Bruce R. Ransom and Zu-Cheng Ye

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter focuses on gap junctions and “half” gap junctions called hemichannels. The channels comprising a gap junction are large-diameter aqueous pores that extend from one cell, across the ... More


Cytokine Production

Francesca Aloisi

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0022
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter discusses recent research on cytokines that are produced by and/or act on glial cells, focusing on those involved in the regulation of inflammatory, immune, and tissue repair processes. ... More


Growth Factors for Neurons Provided by Macroglial Cells

Bernhard Reuss and Klaus Unsicker

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0030
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

Neuronal survival and functions require bidirectional communication between neurons and glia that involves a large variety of growth factors. Neurotrophic factors are operationally defined as ... More


Focal Cerebral Ischemia: The Multifaceted Role of Glial Cells

Ulrich Dirnagl and Josef Priller

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0041
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter begins by looking at the principal mechanisms of ischemic damage and identifies what is known about the specific contribution of glial cells. It then changes the perspective from ... More


Neuroglia

Helmut Kettenmann and Bruce R. Ransom (eds)

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This book details the basic biology and function of glial cells. It covers the entire field of glial research from the basic molecular and cellular properties of these cells to their involvement in ... More


Components of the nervous system Components of the nervous system

Malcolm Burrows

in The Neurobiology of an Insect Brain

Published in print:
1996
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523444
eISBN:
9780191724411
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523444.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

Estimates of the number of glial cells in the central nervous system vary so widely that it is safe to conclude only that we do not know how many there are. In crickets, for example, they are ... More


Enzymes of Carbohydrate and Energy Metabolism

Bernd Hamprecht, Stephan Verleysdonk, and Heinrich Wiesinger

in Neuroglia

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195152227
eISBN:
9780199865024
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152227.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter discusses enzymes of carbohydrate and energy metabolism in glial cells. These include enzymes of glucose metabolism, enzymes of glycogen metabolism, carbonic anhydrases, and enzymes of ... More


Glial cell transplantation and the repair of demyelinating lesions

William F. Blakemore, Robin J.M. Franklin, and Mark Noble

in Glial Cell Development: basic principles and clinical relevance

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781872748542
eISBN:
9780191724367
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9781872748542.003.0011
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Gliotoxin-induced demyelination and myelin-deficient animals are experimental models that have been used to demonstrate that host axons can be myelinated by transplanted cells of the oligodendrocyte ... More


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