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Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Vaclav Smil

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This book is a systematic interdisciplinary account of two epochal trends: the history of the 20th century’s technical transformation based on the unprecedented surge of innovation that took place in ... More


Energy Conversions:: Growth and Innovation

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Our civilization is based on massive consumption of fossil fuels. This chapter begins by examining technical advances of energy industries, before turning to energy transitions and the process of ... More


Must the Poor Pay More? Sustainable Development, Social Justice, and Environmental Taxation

Stephen Tindale and Chris Hewett

in Fairness and Futurity: Essays on Environmental Sustainability and Social Justice

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294894
eISBN:
9780191599064
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294891.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

Stephen Tindale and Chris Hewett analyse one of the most‐discussed policy tools available to politicians for moving towards sustainability: environmental taxation. Such taxation is usually regarded ... More


Energy and Civilization: A History

Vaclav Smil

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262035774
eISBN:
9780262338301
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035774.001.0001
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

Energy is the only universal currency; it is necessary for getting anything done. The conversion of energy on Earth ranges from terra-forming forces of plate tectonics to cumulative erosive effects ... More


The Varieties of Gas Analyzers

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

All analyzers have strengths and limitations that vary with the technology used, and directly affect their suitability for different types of metabolic rate measurement. This chapter discusses the ... More


Focal Points and Legislative Decision-Making: Six Case Studies

Nils Ringe

in Who Decides, and How?: Preferences, Uncertainty, and Policy Choice in the European Parliament

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199572557
eISBN:
9780191722431
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572557.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, European Union

Chapter 5 examines the role of focal points as mechanisms of information provision by analyzing a series of legislative proposals as case studies. It draws on interviews with EU officials and the ... More


Satiation: From Gut to Brain

Gerard P. Smith (ed.)

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195105155
eISBN:
9780199848263
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195105155.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

What is it that stops the process of eating? This book succeeds in answering comprehensively this deceptively simple question, while incorporating the latest scientific research. Unless we stop ... More


Nuclear fusion reactions

Stefano Atzeni and JÜrgen Meyer-Ter-Vehn

in The Physics of Inertial Fusion: BeamPlasma Interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198562641
eISBN:
9780191714030
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198562641.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter discusses nuclear fusion reactions. The concepts of reaction cross-section and of Maxwell-averaged reactivity are defined, and the standard parametrization of these two important ... More


Obesity: An Evolutionary Perspective

Robin I.M. Dunbar

in Insecurity, Inequality, and Obesity in Affluent Societies

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264980
eISBN:
9780191754135
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264980.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

The brain consumes about 20 per cent of the total energy intake in human adults. Primates, and especially humans, have unusually large brains for body size compared with other vertebrates, and ... More


Road User and Congestion Charges

David Michael Newbery

in Theory and Practice of Excise Taxation: Smoking, Drinking, Gambling, Polluting, and Driving

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199278596
eISBN:
9780191602856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199278598.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Designing an efficient set of road user taxes and charges involves charging for scarce road space, setting corrective taxes for environmental externalities, and possibly employing additional taxes to ... More


Summary and Implications For the Future

Malanima Paolo, Astrid Kander, and Paul Warde

in Power to the People: Energy in Europe over the Last Five Centuries

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691143620
eISBN:
9781400848881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691143620.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter summarizes the book's main findings and their implications for the future, reflecting in particular on the limits of growth, peak oil, technology, and prospects for a return to the ... More


Constraints and Dynamics

Malanima Paolo, Astrid Kander, and Paul Warde

in Power to the People: Energy in Europe over the Last Five Centuries

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691143620
eISBN:
9781400848881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691143620.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter examines the dynamics of the early modern European economy in order to highlight both the possibilities for development and the constraints of the old European world. It first considers ... More


“Prophet of a New and Wiser Social Order,” 1929–1932

Robyn Muncy

in Relentless Reformer: Josephine Roche and Progressivism in Twentieth-Century America

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691122731
eISBN:
9781400852413
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691122731.003.0009
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter details events in Josephine Roche's life from 1929 to 1932. As Roche and the miners at Rocky Mountain Fuel (RMF) implemented their “industrial Magna Carta,” they faced two major threats. ... More


A New Civilization

Vaclav Smil

in Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867-1914 and Their Lasting Impact

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195168747
eISBN:
9780199835522
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168747.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Pre-WWI technical advances have created economies and societies whose abundance of material possessions, rates of energy consumption, and overall tempo of life were entirely unprecedented. Both the ... More


Migrating to a “Totally New Planet”: Roche Takes Over Rocky Mountain Fuel, 1927–1928

Robyn Muncy

in Relentless Reformer: Josephine Roche and Progressivism in Twentieth-Century America

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691122731
eISBN:
9781400852413
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691122731.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, American Politics

This chapter details events in Josephine Roche's life from 1927–1928. Orphaned and unemployed in 1927, Roche contemplated her future. Her father's lawyers advised her to sell her stock in the Rocky ... More


Alchemical Mercury: A Theory of Ambivalence

Karen Pinkus

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804760324
eISBN:
9780804772877
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804760324.001.0001
Subject:
Literature, Criticism/Theory

How can we account, in a rigorous way, for alchemy's ubiquity? We think of alchemy as the transformation of a base material (usually lead) into gold, but “alchemy” is a word in wide circulation in ... More


Everyday Consumables

Jane Whittle and Elizabeth Griffiths

in Consumption and Gender in the Early Seventeenth-Century Household: The World of Alice Le Strange

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199233533
eISBN:
9780191739330
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233533.003.0004
Subject:
History, British and Irish Early Modern History

Food and other household consumables such as cleaning products and fuel have been neglected in the history of consumption. The Le Strange accounts include kitchen accounts which record the food ... More


Uncertain Future

James Hinton

in Women, Social Leadership, and the Second World War: Continuities of Class

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199243297
eISBN:
9780191714054
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199243297.003.0008
Subject:
History, British and Irish Modern History

In 1945 most WVS members expected the organization to close down, and when it did not do so, they left. At the same time the national leadership of the established women's organizations which had ... More


A Smart Energy Policy: An Economist's Rx for Balancing Cheap, Clean, and Secure Energy

James M. Griffin

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
October 2013
ISBN:
9780300149852
eISBN:
9780300149869
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300149852.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Everyone wants energy that is clean, cheap, and secure, goals which often conflict: traditional fossil fuels tend to be cheaper than alternative fuels, but they are hardly clean or (in the case of ... More


Ending the Fossil Fuel Era

Thomas Princen, Jack P. Manno, and Pamela L. Martin (eds)

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
January 2016
ISBN:
9780262028806
eISBN:
9780262327077
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262028806.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

Not so long ago, people North and South had little reason to believe that wealth from oil, gas, and coal brought anything but great prosperity. But the presumption of net benefits from fossil fuels ... More


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