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Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Vaclav Smil

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This book is a systematic interdisciplinary account of two epochal trends: the history of the 20th century’s technical transformation based on the unprecedented surge of innovation that took place in ... More


Energy Conversions:: Growth and Innovation

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Our civilization is based on massive consumption of fossil fuels. This chapter begins by examining technical advances of energy industries, before turning to energy transitions and the process of ... More


Must the Poor Pay More? Sustainable Development, Social Justice, and Environmental Taxation

Stephen Tindale and Chris Hewett

in Fairness and Futurity: Essays on Environmental Sustainability and Social Justice

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198294894
eISBN:
9780191599064
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198294891.003.0010
Subject:
Political Science, Environmental Politics

Stephen Tindale and Chris Hewett analyse one of the most‐discussed policy tools available to politicians for moving towards sustainability: environmental taxation. Such taxation is usually regarded ... More


Energy and Civilization: A History

Vaclav Smil

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262035774
eISBN:
9780262338301
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035774.001.0001
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

Energy is the only universal currency; it is necessary for getting anything done. The conversion of energy on Earth ranges from terra-forming forces of plate tectonics to cumulative erosive effects ... More


The Varieties of Gas Analyzers

John R. B. Lighton

in Measuring Metabolic Rates: A Manual for Scientists

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195310610
eISBN:
9780199871414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195310610.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Biotechnology

All analyzers have strengths and limitations that vary with the technology used, and directly affect their suitability for different types of metabolic rate measurement. This chapter discusses the ... More


Nuclear fusion reactions

Stefano Atzeni and JÜrgen Meyer-Ter-Vehn

in The Physics of Inertial Fusion: BeamPlasma Interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198562641
eISBN:
9780191714030
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198562641.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter discusses nuclear fusion reactions. The concepts of reaction cross-section and of Maxwell-averaged reactivity are defined, and the standard parametrization of these two important ... More


Focal Points and Legislative Decision-Making: Six Case Studies

Nils Ringe

in Who Decides, and How?: Preferences, Uncertainty, and Policy Choice in the European Parliament

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199572557
eISBN:
9780191722431
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199572557.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, European Union

Chapter 5 examines the role of focal points as mechanisms of information provision by analyzing a series of legislative proposals as case studies. It draws on interviews with EU officials and the ... More


Obesity: An Evolutionary Perspective

Robin I.M. Dunbar

in Insecurity, Inequality, and Obesity in Affluent Societies

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780197264980
eISBN:
9780191754135
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264980.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Health, Illness, and Medicine

The brain consumes about 20 per cent of the total energy intake in human adults. Primates, and especially humans, have unusually large brains for body size compared with other vertebrates, and ... More


Satiation: From Gut to Brain

Gerard P. Smith (ed.)

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195105155
eISBN:
9780199848263
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195105155.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

What is it that stops the process of eating? This book succeeds in answering comprehensively this deceptively simple question, while incorporating the latest scientific research. Unless we stop ... More


Road User and Congestion Charges

David Michael Newbery

in Theory and Practice of Excise Taxation: Smoking, Drinking, Gambling, Polluting, and Driving

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199278596
eISBN:
9780191602856
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199278598.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

Designing an efficient set of road user taxes and charges involves charging for scarce road space, setting corrective taxes for environmental externalities, and possibly employing additional taxes to ... More


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