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Retributivism I: Fair Play Theory

Matt Matravers

in Justice and Punishment: The Rationale of Coercion

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295730
eISBN:
9780191599828
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295731.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

A recent attempt to revive retributive theories of punishment, pioneered by Herbert Morris and Jeffrie Murphy, argues that punishment restores the balance of benefits and burdens in a society; a ... More


The Evolution of Strong Reciprocity

Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis

in A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151250
eISBN:
9781400838837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151250.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

This chapter focuses on the evolution of strong reciprocity. A predisposition to cooperate and a willingness to punish defectors is known as strong reciprocity, and it is the combination of the two ... More


The Logic of <i>Logic</i>, and Beyond

Lee Cronk and Beth L. Leech

in Meeting at Grand Central: Understanding the Social and Evolutionary Roots of Cooperation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154954
eISBN:
9781400845484
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154954.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter examines Mancur Olson's arguments, which he articulated in The Logic of Collective Action, and compares them with those of his supporters and detractors. It also reviews the social ... More


Cooperation and the Individual

Lee Cronk and Beth L. Leech

in Meeting at Grand Central: Understanding the Social and Evolutionary Roots of Cooperation

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691154954
eISBN:
9781400845484
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691154954.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Comparative and Historical Sociology

This chapter examines the evolutionary roots of the proximate psychological mechanisms that underlie cooperation. The idea that there are specific biological mechanisms behind at least some aspects ... More


Bridging Reality and the Theory of International Environmental Agreements

Charles D. Kolstad

in Climate Change and Common Sense: Essays in Honour of Tom Schelling

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199692873
eISBN:
9780191738371
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692873.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The literature on the economics of international environmental agreements has been developing for two decades. Some significant progress has been made. But some simple and fundamental questions ... More


The Sylvania Free Rider Justification for Downstream-Power Vertical Restraints: Truth or Invitation for Pretext?

Warren S. Grimes

in How the Chicago School Overshot the Mark: The Effect of Conservative Economic Analysis on U.S. Antitrust

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780195372823
eISBN:
9780199871773
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372823.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Behavioural Economics

This paper argues that free riding is a pretext. It offers a detailed analysis of fact and law in Business Electronics v. Sharp Electronics, a Supreme Court decision in which Justice Scalia ignored ... More


Epistemic Failures of Majority Rule: Real and Imagined

Hélène Landemore

in Democratic Reason: Politics, Collective Intelligence, and the Rule of the Many

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691155654
eISBN:
9781400845538
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691155654.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Political Theory

This chapter addresses a series of objections to the claimed epistemic properties of majority rule and, more generally, aggregation of judgments. It first considers a general objection to the ... More


Laying the Theoretical Foundations for the Study of Development Aid

Clark C. Gibson

in The Samaritan's Dilemma: The Political Economy of Development Aid

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
October 2005
ISBN:
9780199278855
eISBN:
9780191602863
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199278857.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter focuses on the problem of collective action as it relates to development at the operational level. It first explores how individuals’ motivation may hamper their incentive to work ... More


Optimal Adherence Rules

Jeffrey Brand-Ballard

in Limits of Legality: The Ethics of Lawless Judging

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195342291
eISBN:
9780199867011
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195342291.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Political Philosophy

This chapter asks whether the members of Group O (see chapter 11) have individual reasons to contribute to the group’s efforts by adhering in at least some suboptimal-result cases. It is argued that ... More


Voluntary Associations

Geoffrey Brennan and Philip Pettit

in The Economy of Esteem: An Essay on Civil and Political Society

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2004
ISBN:
9780199246489
eISBN:
9780191601460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246483.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Although esteem cannot readily be the object of direct exchange, something rather like exchange can be secured in the economy of esteem via associations. By being ‘associated’ with B, A can earn ... More


Involuntary Associations

Geoffrey Brennan and Philip Pettit

in The Economy of Esteem: An Essay on Civil and Political Society

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
November 2004
ISBN:
9780199246489
eISBN:
9780191601460
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246483.003.0013
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Voluntary esteem associations form for the purposes of magnifying positive esteem of their members. But individuals can be disesteemed by virtue of their being associated–as members of a race might ... More


Three Models of Intergenerational Reciprocity

Axel Gosseries

in Intergenerational Justice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199282951
eISBN:
9780191712319
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199282951.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter explores the specificities, strengths, and weaknesses of the idea of reciprocity as a basis for intergenerational obligations. Three models are presented: descending, ascending, and ... More


Investors and Exploiters in Ecology and Economics: Principles and Applications

Luc-Alain Giraldeau, Philipp Heeb, and Michael Kosfeld (eds)

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036122
eISBN:
9780262339803
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036122.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

In the natural world, some agents (investors) employ strategies that provide resources, services, or information while others (exploiters) achieve gain through these efforts. Such behavior coexists ... More


The Market: Freedom from Morality

David Gauthier

in Morals by Agreement

Published in print:
1987
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198249924
eISBN:
9780191597497
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198249926.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

Economics celebrates an ideal of interaction free from all constraint, an ideal found in the perfectly competitive market, where equilibrium and optimality coincide. Morality can then be thought of ... More


The Missing Free-Rider: Religious Rewards and Collective Action

Masooda Bano

in The Rational Believer: Choices and Decisions in the Madrasas of Pakistan

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801450440
eISBN:
9780801463860
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801450440.003.0007
Subject:
Religion, Islam

This chapter investigates the ability of religion to check free-riding in the use of public goods. Madrasas and mosques produce public goods in the form of trained imams and the performance of ... More


Summing Up

Stephen M. Gardiner

in Debating Climate Ethics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
June 2016
ISBN:
9780199996476
eISBN:
9780190614775
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199996476.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter sums up the previous arguments, which have tried to establish two central propositions. The first is that it is in our self-interest to pursue aggressive emissions reductions of ... More


Law and the Entitlement to Coerce *

Robert C. Hughes

in Philosophical Foundations of the Nature of Law

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199675517
eISBN:
9780191757280
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199675517.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter argues that the justification of the power to make law does not entail the existence of an entitlement to use or to threaten coercion. In a society of morally very good people, there can ... More


Diffusion Shortfall in Free Innovation

Eric von Hippel

in Free Innovation

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780262035217
eISBN:
9780262335461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035217.003.0005
Subject:
Business and Management, Innovation

This chapter identifies an important inbuilt difference between the two paradigms with respect to innovation diffusion. The difference springs from the fact that, unlike producers, free innovators do ... More


Introduction

Luc-Alain Giraldeau and Michael Kosfeld

in Investors and Exploiters in Ecology and Economics: Principles and Applications

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036122
eISBN:
9780262339803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036122.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Why do some individuals invest in making a resource available, while others simply wait and exploit the fruits of this effort? Why do some people cooperate in joint production and public goods ... More


Explaining Variation in Cooperative Behavior: Perspectives from the Economics Literature

Friederike Mengel and Joël van der Weele

in Investors and Exploiters in Ecology and Economics: Principles and Applications

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780262036122
eISBN:
9780262339803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262036122.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, History of Economic Thought

Casual observation and controlled experiments show that humans display great heterogeneity in their tendency to exploit others or invest in mutual cooperation. This chapter reviews models in the ... More


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