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Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Vaclav Smil

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This book is a systematic interdisciplinary account of two epochal trends: the history of the 20th century’s technical transformation based on the unprecedented surge of innovation that took place in ... More


Energy Conversions:: Growth and Innovation

Vaclav Smil

in Transforming the Twentieth Century: Volume 2: Technical Innovations and Their Consequences

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195168754
eISBN:
9780199783601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168755.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Our civilization is based on massive consumption of fossil fuels. This chapter begins by examining technical advances of energy industries, before turning to energy transitions and the process of ... More


 The Origins and Evolution of Homo sapiens

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0004
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

The notions of natural selection and drift also apply to humans and their biological and cultural evolution. The science of paleoanthropology explains human evolution through the study of ... More


Giants and Genes: Changing Views of Peking Man's Evolutionary Significance

Noel T. Boaz and Russell L. Ciochon

in Dragon Bone Hill: An Ice Age Saga of Homo erectus

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195152913
eISBN:
9780199790036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152913.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines the twists and turns of the paleoanthropological interpretation of Peking Man: the first, largely fanciful and hopeful pronouncements; the more mature hypotheses based on the ... More


The early history of birds in Britain and Europe

D. W. Yalden and U. Albarella

in The History of British Birds

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199217519
eISBN:
9780191712296
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199217519.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Ornithology

Starting with the first bird, Archaeopteryx, about 150 million years ago, this chapter reviews bird history from then to the end of the Last Glaciation about 15,000 years ago. Cretaceous birds, from ... More


Energy and Civilization: A History

Vaclav Smil

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780262035774
eISBN:
9780262338301
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262035774.001.0001
Subject:
Environmental Science, Environmental Studies

Energy is the only universal currency; it is necessary for getting anything done. The conversion of energy on Earth ranges from terra-forming forces of plate tectonics to cumulative erosive effects ... More


Herto Brains and Minds: Behaviour of Early Homo sapiens from the Middle Awash

Yonas Beyene

in Social Brain, Distributed Mind

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197264522
eISBN:
9780191734724
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197264522.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Evolutionary Psychology

The discovery of three late Middle Pleistocene hominid crania, Homo sapiens idaltu, at Herto in the Middle Awash research area in Ethiopia in 1997 shed considerable light on this little-known period ... More


Summary and Implications For the Future

Malanima Paolo, Astrid Kander, and Paul Warde

in Power to the People: Energy in Europe over the Last Five Centuries

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691143620
eISBN:
9781400848881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691143620.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter summarizes the book's main findings and their implications for the future, reflecting in particular on the limits of growth, peak oil, technology, and prospects for a return to the ... More


Holocene Extinctions

Samuel T. Turvey (ed.)

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199535095
eISBN:
9780191715754
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199535095.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The extent to which human activity has influenced species extinctions during the recent prehistoric past remains controversial due to other factors such as climatic fluctuations and a general lack of ... More


Dissent from Darwin

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the customary assumptions about the nature of the earth and about heredity and species that challenged Darwin's model. Topics covered include the age of the Earth, definitions ... More


Who Were the Neanderthals?

Norman A. Johnson

in Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195306750
eISBN:
9780199790203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306750.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

How close were the Neanderthals to modern humans? Are Neanderthal genes in our gene pool? This chapter explores recent studies analyzing the DNA from Neanderthal fossils to provide a framework to ... More


The Bones of Dragon Hill

Noel T. Boaz and Russell L. Ciochon

in Dragon Bone Hill: An Ice Age Saga of Homo erectus

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195152913
eISBN:
9780199790036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152913.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on the discoveries at Dragon Bone Hill in northern China. Topics discussed include the mysterious affinity between the ancient dragons of Chinese myth and the fossilized remains ... More


The Dragon Reclaims Its Own

Noel T. Boaz and Russell L. Ciochon

in Dragon Bone Hill: An Ice Age Saga of Homo erectus

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195152913
eISBN:
9780199790036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152913.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on the impact of the Sino-Japanese War on excavations at Longgushan and the fate of the Peking Man fossils. Japanese interest in the Peking Man fossils and where the Peking Man ... More


The Times and Climes of Homo erectus

Noel T. Boaz and Russell L. Ciochon

in Dragon Bone Hill: An Ice Age Saga of Homo erectus

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195152913
eISBN:
9780199790036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152913.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines the conditions under which Homo erectus lived. Related topics discussed include dating the fossils at Longgushan, paleoclimatic data from the Longgushan cave, Homo erectus' ... More


Testing the New Hypotheses

Noel T. Boaz and Russell L. Ciochon

in Dragon Bone Hill: An Ice Age Saga of Homo erectus

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195152913
eISBN:
9780199790036
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195152913.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Anatomical, archaeological, geological, paleontological, and paleoecological evidence have been pieced together to present a series of new hypotheses about the Chinese Homo erectus and its main site ... More


The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the geological fossil records

Kevin J. Peterson, James A. Cotton, James G. Gehling, and Davide Pisani

in Animal Evolution: Genomes, Fossils, and Trees

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199549429
eISBN:
9780191721601
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199549429.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Developmental Biology

Unraveling the timing of the metazoan radiation is crucial for elucidating the macroevolutionary processes associated with the Cambrian explosion. Because estimates of metazoan divergence times ... More


Metazoans enter the stage

Alessandro Minelli

in Perspectives in Animal Phylogeny and Evolution

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780198566205
eISBN:
9780191713866
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566205.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Molecular phylogenetics places the animals firmly within the clade of the Opisthokonta, with the choanoflagellates as their most likely sister group. Choanoflagellates possess many of those ... More


The past is another country: is evidence for prehistoric, historical, and present-day extinction really comparable?

Samuel T. Turvey and Joanne H. Cooper

in Holocene Extinctions

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199535095
eISBN:
9780191715754
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199535095.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Our understanding of Late Quaternary ecosystems and the timing and causation of prehistoric extinctions is based almost entirely on studies of the recent fossil record. However, palaeontological and ... More


Introduction

Quentin Cronk

in The Molecular Organography of Plants

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199550357
eISBN:
9780191720154
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199550357.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry, Developmental Biology

This introductory chapter chronicles in general the enormous increase in complexity in plants since plants colonized the land, and the consequences of this for terrestrial ecosystems. The principles ... More


A New Civilization

Vaclav Smil

in Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867-1914 and Their Lasting Impact

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
July 2005
ISBN:
9780195168747
eISBN:
9780199835522
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195168747.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

Pre-WWI technical advances have created economies and societies whose abundance of material possessions, rates of energy consumption, and overall tempo of life were entirely unprecedented. Both the ... More


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