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The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Sönke Johnsen

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Optics—a field of physics focusing on the study of light—is also central to many areas of biology, including vision, ecology, botany, animal behavior, neurobiology, and molecular biology. This book ... More


Nanobiosensors

Tza‐Huei Wang, Kelvin Liu, Hsin‐Chih Yeh, and Christopher M. Puleo

in Micro/Nano Technology Systems for Biomedical Applications: Microfluidics, Optics, and Surface Chemistry

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199219698
eISBN:
9780191594229
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219698.003.0010
Subject:
Mathematics, Mathematical Biology

This chapter discusses and provides insight into state of the art nanobiosensors used in high sensitivity molecular analysis and detection. It begins with an introduction into the fundamental ... More


Measuring and Modeling Primary Production in Marine Pelagic Ecosystems

Maria Vernet and Raymond C. Smith

in Principles and Standards for Measuring Primary Production

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195168662
eISBN:
9780199790128
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168662.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Primary production of the open ocean plays a key role in the global carbon cycle, and spatial and temporal scaling problems in the marine ecosystem present severe challenges to its quantification. ... More


Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy

Alan Corney

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211456
eISBN:
9780191705915
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211456.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This book gives an account of the progress that has been made in the fields of atomic physics and laser spectroscopy during the last fifty years. The first five chapters prepare the foundations of ... More


Fluorescence

Sönke Johnsen

in The Optics of Life: A Biologist's Guide to Light in Nature

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691139906
eISBN:
9781400840663
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691139906.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter looks at fluorescence. Fluorescence does not make light. This misunderstanding comes in two ways. The first is a common misuse of terms. Historically, bioluminescence was often referred ... More


Quantum noise and dissipation

J. C. Garrison and R. Y. Chiao

in Quantum Optics

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198508861
eISBN:
9780191708640
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508861.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Dissipation and noise are treated by dividing the world into the sample and the environment. For weak sample-environment coupling, the environment is modeled by one or more reservoirs, represented by ... More


SCANNING TOMOGRAPHY

Alexandre Simionovici, Pierre Bleuet, Bruno Golosio, and Christian Schroer

in Advanced Tomographic Methods in Materials Research and Engineering

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199213245
eISBN:
9780191707582
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213245.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

In cases where the effect of interest changes the direction of the incoming radiation, the image pixels are no longer decoupled and the sample has to be scanned sequentially using a small focused ... More


The Hanle effect and the theory of resonance fluorescence experiments

Alan Corney

in Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199211456
eISBN:
9780191705915
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211456.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

This chapter provides an account of atomic resonance fluorescence and its depolarization by external magnetic fields, also known as the Hanle effect. Experiments in mercury vapour and their ... More


Quantized Fields and Coherent States

Stephen C. Rand

in Lectures on Light: Nonlinear and Quantum Optics using the Density Matrix

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780199574872
eISBN:
9780191722219
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199574872.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Chapter 6 begins by transforming the optical wave itself into a quantized form, and the full implications of the wave‐particle duality of Chapter 2 become clear. The electric field may be pictured as ... More


The use of fluorescent probes

Shin’ichi Ishiwata

in Current Methods in Muscle Physiology: Advantages, Problems and Limitations

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523970
eISBN:
9780191724480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523970.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Muscle contraction is attributed to the microscopic (to be more precise, nanoscopic) structural changes in protein motors. However, we have not yet succeeded in observing these critical structural ... More


Basics of optically pumped astrophysical lasers

Vladilen Letokhov and Sveneric Johansson

in Astrophysical Lasers

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780199548279
eISBN:
9780191720512
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548279.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Optical (visible and near-IR) astrophysical lasers are pumped by selective photoexcitation performed through a ‘photoexcitation by accidental resonance’ (PAR) process; a process introduced by Kastner ... More


Parameter Inference for Stochastic Kinetic Models of Bacterial Gene Regulation: A Bayesian Approach to Systems Biology

Darren J. Wilkinson

in Bayesian Statistics 9

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199694587
eISBN:
9780191731921
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199694587.003.0023
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

Bacteria are single‐celled organisms which often display heterogeneous behaviour, even among populations of genetically identical cells in uniform environmental conditions. Markov process models ... More


ROTATIONAL DIFFUSION

Robert M. Mazo

in Brownian Motion: Fluctuations, Dynamics, and Applications

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199556441
eISBN:
9780191705625
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199556441.003.0015
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter treats rotational diffusion in the Smoluchowski limit, but not limited to uniaxial diffusion. The rotational Langevin equation for a spherical particle with a homogeneous external field ... More


Introduction

Ivan Pelant and Jan Valenta

in Luminescence Spectroscopy of Semiconductors

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199588336
eISBN:
9780191738548
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199588336.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Introduction is of quite general nature. It contains basic terminological definitions used throughout the book. The term secondary radiation is introduced. The difference between ‘luminescence’ (cold ... More


Multiple calcium signalling pathways in squid giant presynaptic terminals

George J. Augustine, Joachim Deitmer, Michael Hans, Dieter Swandulla, and Karl Zipser

in Cephalopod Neurobiology: Neuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198547907
eISBN:
9780191724299
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.003.0182
Subject:
Neuroscience, Invertebrate Neurobiology

This chapter considers the recent studies that use the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, fura-2, to further characterize presynaptic Ca2+ signaling. The fluorescent Ca indicator, fura-2, can be used to ... More


The use of fluorescent nucleotides

Clive R. Bagshaw

in Current Methods in Muscle Physiology: Advantages, Problems and Limitations

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198523970
eISBN:
9780191724480
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523970.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Techniques

Fluorescence is one of the most sensitive forms of spectroscopy available. In the last decade, detection has been achieved by several groups at the single molecule level. Furthermore, fluorescence ... More


Obsidian Acquisition, Trade, and Regional Interaction at Chan

Cynthia Robin

in Chan: An Ancient Maya Farming Community

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780813039831
eISBN:
9780813043753
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813039831.003.0014
Subject:
Archaeology, Prehistoric Archaeology

This chapter examines 742 obsidian artifacts identified at the Maya farming community of Chan and presents the results of source origin studies of these artifacts. Elemental composition analysis was ... More


Representing the Image

David Marr

in Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262514620
eISBN:
9780262289610
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262514620.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Vision

This chapter describes how to represent an image. It defines a representation of the image of reflectance changes on a surface that is suitable for detecting changes in the image’s geometrical ... More


America—A New Home

in Science and Conscience: The Life of James Franck

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780804763103
eISBN:
9780804779098
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804763103.003.0007
Subject:
History, Cultural History

After moving to Baltimore, James Franck began to work at Johns Hopkins University and collaborated with Karl F. Herzfeld in examining energy relations of photosynthesis. Their results were presented ... More


Bose–Einstein condensation of photons

Jan Klaers and Martin Weitz

in Novel Superfluids: Volume 1

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
May 2013
ISBN:
9780199585915
eISBN:
9780191747526
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199585915.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Nuclear and Plasma Physics

This chapter reviews recent work on the Bose–Einstein condensation of photons in a dye microcavity environment. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 6.2 describes the fluorescence induced ... More


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