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How Smart Forgetting Helps Heuristic Inference

Lael J. Schooler, Ralph Hertwig, and Stefan M. Herzog

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0039
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Theorists ranging from William James (1890) to some contemporary psychologists have argued that forgetting is the key to proper functioning of memory. The authors elaborate on the notion of ... More


Cortical systems in speaking

Doreen Kimura

in Neuromotor Mechanisms in Human Communication

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780195054927
eISBN:
9780199872268
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195054927.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter examines aphasic patients who have experienced damage to either the anterior or posterior speech zones. The results of various speech comprehension and perception tasks undertaken by ... More


Language

Kenneth M. Heilman

in Matter of Mind: A Neurologist's View of Brain-Behavior Relationships

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195144901
eISBN:
9780199865642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195144901.003.0002
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the brain mechanisms underlying the three categories of language disorders: speech disorders, reading disorders, and writing disorders. Speech disorders include loss of speech ... More


Fluency Heuristic: A Model of How the Mind Exploits a By-Product of Information Retrieval

Ralph Hertwig, Stefan M. Herzog, Lael J. Schooler, and Torsten Reimer

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0026
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Boundedly rational heuristics for inference can be surprisingly accurate and frugal for several reasons. They can exploit environmental structures, co-opt complex capacities, and elude effortful ... More


‘For how long can you expect a child to blow into a French horn?’

Gary E. McPherson, Jane W. Davidson, and Robert Faulkner

in Music In Our Lives: Rethinking Musical Ability, Development, and Identity

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199579297
eISBN:
9780191738463
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579297.003.0031
Subject:
Psychology, Music Psychology, Social Psychology

Chapter 2 and 3 raised doubts about how long the majority of young students could be expected to commit to ongoing instrumental learning in the face of a range of demotive factors: serious ... More


Multimedia Parks vs. Virtual Malls in the Elementary Years

Marina Umaschi Bers

in Designing Digital Experiences for Positive Youth Development: From Playpen to Playground

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780199757022
eISBN:
9780199933037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199757022.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Social Psychology

This chapter starts by introducing the metaphor of parks as spaces where children can develop and master skills, make their own choices based on personal interests and engage socially within ... More


The Neuroscience of Form in Art

George Lakoff

in The Artful Mind: Cognitive Science and the Riddle of Human Creativity

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195306361
eISBN:
9780199851034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306361.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter considers the mystery of how art presents gaps, disparities, and improvisations that invite—and even insist on—our participation in the act of reconciliation or completion and ... More


Value–Control Relations: It’s the Fit that Counts

E. Tory Higgins

in Beyond Pleasure and Pain: How Motivation Works

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199765829
eISBN:
9780199918966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199765829.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter is about the impact of value-control relations on how we feel about what we are doing and what we have done—whether we feel right or feel wrong in our journey. It presents evidence for ... More


Processing Fluency, Aesthetic Pleasure, and Culturally Shared Taste

Rolf Reber

in Aesthetic Science: Connecting Minds, Brains, and Experience

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199732142
eISBN:
9780199918485
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199732142.003.0055
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews the processing fluency theory of aesthetic pleasure and introduces a new account of socially shared tastes based on this theory. Processing fluency – or simply fluency – is ... More


A Frugal View of Cognitive Phenomenology

William S. Robinson

in Cognitive Phenomenology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199579938
eISBN:
9780191731112
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199579938.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Liberal views of cognitive phenomenology propose occurrent, non‐imagistic, non‐emotional, conscious understandings to account for sudden realizations, disambiguation of images or sentences, and other ... More


Seeds of self-knowledge: noetic feelings and metacognition

Jérôme Dokic

in Foundations of Metacognition

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199646739
eISBN:
9780191745867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199646739.003.0020
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This chapter is about the psychological nature and epistemic value of noetic feelings, such as the feeling of knowing or the feeling of uncertainty. Noetic feelings are ‘seeds’ of self-knowledge, ... More


How Forgetting Aids Heuristic Inference

Lael J. Schooler and Ralph Hertwig

in Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
May 2011
ISBN:
9780199744282
eISBN:
9780199894727
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0004
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Some theorists, ranging from W. James (1890) to contemporary psychologists, have argued that forgetting is the key to proper functioning of memory. The chapter elaborates on the notion of beneficial ... More


Speech motor timing and fluency

Peter Howell, Andrew Anderson, and Jorge Lucero

in Speech Motor Control: New developments in basic and applied research

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780199235797
eISBN:
9780191696671
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199235797.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

Smith's spatio-temporal index (STI) is widely used to assess variability in motor timing performance in various speaking conditions. STI has been shown to be a sensitive index of developmental ... More


Assessment of executive dysfunction

John R. Crawford and Julie D. Henry

in The Effectiveness of Rehabilitation for Cognitive Deficits

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198526544
eISBN:
9780191689420
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526544.003.0019
Subject:
Psychology, Neuropsychology

This chapter focuses on the measurement properties of putative tests of executive dysfunction and on validity information. It reviews the tests ... More


Metacognitive Diversity: An Interdisciplinary Approach

Joëlle Proust and Martin Fortier (eds)

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
May 2018
ISBN:
9780198789710
eISBN:
9780191841675
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198789710.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Social Psychology

This book focuses on the variability of metacognitive skills across cultures. Metacognition refers to the processes that enable agents to contextually control their first-order cognitive activity ... More


Loss of emotional fluency as a developmental phenotype: the example of anhedonia

Stephanie Dubai and Roland Jouvent

in Emotional Development:: Recent Research Advances

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198528845
eISBN:
9780191689567
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528845.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Anhedonia is the loss the of the capacity to experience pleasure and is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This chapter considers anhedonia to be a loss of emotional fluency and addresses ... More


Familiarity in an Implicit and Explicit Memory Task: A Common Mechanism

Sachiko Kinoshita

in Rethinking Implicit Memory

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780192632326
eISBN:
9780191670466
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192632326.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter examines the nature of familiarity that has been proposed as a basis for making decisions in an explicit memory task (recognition memory) and an implicit memory task (lexical decision). ... More


Effects of processing fluency on estimates of probability and frequency

Rolf Reber and Natasha Zupanek

in Etc. Frequency Processing and Cognition

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198508632
eISBN:
9780191687365
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508632.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

People may apply multiple strategies for estimating frequency or probability of occurrence. One of them is the use of the availability heuristic, which is the ease of retrieving instances from ... More


Ritual in the Liji

Michael David Kaulana Ing

in The Dysfunction of Ritual in Early Confucianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199924899
eISBN:
9780199980437
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199924899.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter provides a characterization of ritual. It examines various conceptions of li in the Liji and demonstrates that some authors of the text understood li in a more restrictive sense. For ... More


Preventing Dysfunction

Michael David Kaulana Ing

in The Dysfunction of Ritual in Early Confucianism

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199924899
eISBN:
9780199980437
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199924899.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter investigates attitudes toward preventable failures in ritual. It begins with an account of failures in competency and examines how early Confucians strived to prevent these failures. ... More


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