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Exercising Caution: Physical Activity and Reproductive Health, 1940–2005

Martha H. Verbrugge

in Active Bodies: A History of Women’s Physical Education in Twentieth-Century America

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195168792
eISBN:
9780199949649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168792.003.0009
Subject:
History, American History: 20th Century, American History: 19th Century

Chapter 9 (the counterpart to Chapter 3) examines major shifts in the debate over female exercise and reproductive health during the second half of the twentieth century. Following a period of ... More


Wearing Our Shorts a Little Longer: Testing the Boundaries of Evangelical Femininity

Annie Blazer

in Playing for God: Evangelical Women and the Unintended Consequences of Sports Ministry

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9781479898015
eISBN:
9781479838820
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479898015.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Female Christian athletes employ different self-display choices in different contexts, revealingfemininity as a social construct requiring ongoing performance. They also work very hard to maintain a ... More


The Dilemma of Difference and the “Problem” of Pregnancy

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines Title IX's progress in changing the cultural norms surrounding women's participation in sports by focusing on how it deals with issues facing athletes who become pregnant. It ... More


7 The Dilemma of Difference and the “Problem” of Pregnancy

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines Title IX's progress in changing the cultural norms surrounding women's participation in sports by focusing on how it deals with issues facing athletes who become pregnant. It ... More


Integration Rights: Girls Playing with Boys and Boys Playing with Girls

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines integration rights as an important qualification to sex-separate opportunities and how such rights help mitigate, if not eliminate, the downsides of sex separation in sports. ... More


“Raindrops on a Window”: Race and Sex and the Framing of the Sheryl Swoopes Narrative

Lisa Doris Alexander

in A Locker Room of Her Own: Celebrity, Sexuality, and Female Athletes

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2014
ISBN:
9781617038136
eISBN:
9781621039617
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781617038136.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This chapter explains why Sheryl Swoopes’ revelation of being a lesbian did not negatively affect her reputation. It points out that Swoopes was not the first female athlete to admit homosexuality. ... More


Women’s Sport and Questionable Sex

Jaime Schultz

in Qualifying Times: Points of Change in U.S. Women's Sport

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252038167
eISBN:
9780252095962
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252038167.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter explores how leaders of several international athletic federations worked to quell anxieties about “manly” women competitors by instituting “sex-testing” policies to verify the ... More


A Locker Room of Her Own: Celebrity, Sexuality, and Female Athletes

David C. Ogden and Joel Nathan Rosen (eds)

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
March 2014
ISBN:
9781617038136
eISBN:
9781621039617
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Mississippi
DOI:
10.14325/mississippi/9781617038136.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

Female athletes are too often perceived as interlopers in the historically male-dominated world of sports. Obstacles specific to women are of particular focus in this book. Race, sexual orientation, ... More


2 Integration Rights: Girls Playing with Boys and Boys Playing with Girls

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines integration rights as an important qualification to sex-separate opportunities and how such rights help mitigate, if not eliminate, the downsides of sex separation in sports. ... More


Practicing Faith: Sports Ministry and Evangelicalism in America

Annie Blazer

in Playing for God: Evangelical Women and the Unintended Consequences of Sports Ministry

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9781479898015
eISBN:
9781479838820
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9781479898015.003.0001
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Far from the founders of sports ministry’s original intentions, the encounter between evangelicalism and sports has resulted in a flexible evangelicalism that has allowed for a far wider range of ... More


Beyond Equal Access: Retaliation, Coaching, And Sexual Harassment

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines three issues that are central to Title IX's gender equality goals beyond getting women into sports and providing equal support and benefits: protection of individuals who are ... More


8 Beyond Equal Access: Retaliation, Coaching, And Sexual Harassment

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines three issues that are central to Title IX's gender equality goals beyond getting women into sports and providing equal support and benefits: protection of individuals who are ... More


Treatment as an Equal

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines Title IX's equal treatment framework and its progress toward equalizing the treatment and benefits given to male and female athletes, along with its limitations. The biggest ... More


Misleading Aesthetic Norms of Beauty: Perceptual Sexism in Elite Women’s Sports

Peg Brand Weiser and Edward B. Weiser

in Body Aesthetics

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780198716778
eISBN:
9780191785351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716778.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics, Feminist Philosophy

The history of gender challenges faced by women in elite sports is fraught with controversy and injustice. These athletes’ unique physical beauty creates what appears to be a paradox, yet is ... More


6 Treatment as an Equal

Deborah L. Brake

in Getting in the Game: Title IX and the Women's Sports Revolution

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799659
eISBN:
9780814789797
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799659.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

This chapter examines Title IX's equal treatment framework and its progress toward equalizing the treatment and benefits given to male and female athletes, along with its limitations. The biggest ... More


“One of the Most Horrid Misuses of a Scientific Method”: The Development of a Protest

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0007
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

Although the International Olympic Committee (IOC) sought to differentiate women from men, the methods employed repeatedly illustrated the difficulty in determining the exact composition of ... More


“A Careful Inquiry to Establish Her Sex beyond a Doubt”: Sex/Gender Anxieties in Track and Field

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0002
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter illustrates the sex-segregated framework of sport and highlights the historical threats to the sex/gender status quo. In the early twentieth century, track and field was the most popular ... More


The Civil Rights Restoration Act and Enforcement of Title IX

Howard P. Chudacoff

in Changing the Playbook: How Power, Profit, and Politics Transformed College Sports

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252039782
eISBN:
9780252097881
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252039782.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Sport and Leisure

This chapter discusses Title IX, the Civil Rights Restoration Act, and gender equity on college sports. The Education Amendments passed by Congress in 1972 included a provision in its Title IX that ... More


“Because They Have Muscles, Big Ones”: Cold War Gender Norms and International Sport, 1952–1967

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

This chapter examines how Cold War tensions heightened the fear of fraudulent competitors in international sport. The Cold War exacerbated earlier sex/gender concerns and resulted in a mandatory ... More


“East Germany’s Mighty Sports Machine”: Steroids, Nationalism, and Femininity Testing

Lindsay Parks Pieper

in Sex Testing: Gender Policing in Women's Sports

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780252040221
eISBN:
9780252098444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Illinois Press
DOI:
10.5406/illinois/9780252040221.003.0005
Subject:
Society and Culture, Gender Studies

The International Olympic Committee (IOC) created its medical commission in order to deter athletes from consuming performance-enhancing substances and to bar sex/gender-transgressive women from ... More


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