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Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Samir Okasha

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Does natural selection act primarily on individual organisms, on groups, on genes, or on whole species? This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the long-standing controversy in evolutionary ... More


Introduction

Arnold J. Wilkins

in Visual Stress

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198521747
eISBN:
9780191706691
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198521747.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This introductory chapter discusses eye-strain as a physical consequence of visual stimulation, and then provides an overview of the remainder of the book. A general and unified theory of visual ... More


Left versus right eye

L. Weiskrantz

in Blindsight: A Case Study and Implications

Published in print:
1990
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198521921
eISBN:
9780191706226
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198521921.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

On a number of occasions when the two eyes were compared, it was found that the left eye seemed better than the right. This was confirmed in this study for detection of a 10° disc. It was possible ... More


Visual Ecology

Thomas W. Cronin, Sönke Johnsen, N. Justin Marshall, and Eric J. Warrant

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151847
eISBN:
9781400853021
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151847.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Visual ecology is the study of how animals use visual systems to meet their ecological needs, how these systems have evolved, and how they are specialized for particular visual tasks. This book ... More


The Gene's‐Eye View and its Discontents

Samir Okasha

in Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2007
ISBN:
9780199267972
eISBN:
9780191708275
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

This chapter examines the ‘genic’ view of evolution associated with Williams, Dawkins, Maynard Smith, and others. A distinction is drawn between the process of genic selection and a gene's eye ... More


 Creationist Purpose and Irreducible Complexity Rebutted

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0003
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter rebuts irreducible complexity and creationism by explaining the reliability of dating techniques as well as sophisticated laboratory techniques that allow researchers to synthesize ... More


Preamble

Susan Jones

in Conrad and Women

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198184485
eISBN:
9780191674273
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198184485.003.0001
Subject:
Literature, European Literature, 20th-century Literature and Modernism

Joseph Conrad is widely recognised as a writer of sea stories with predominantly masculine themes. This book argues that despite this established reputation, Conrad did not neglect women's themes in ... More


Lighting

Arnold J. Wilkins

in Visual Stress

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198521747
eISBN:
9780191706691
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198521747.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

Most electric lighting pulsates in brightness twice with each cycle of the alternating electricity supply. Fluorescent lighting fluctuates to such an extent as to affect the firing of visual neurons. ... More


Homicide, Injury, Miscarriage, and Talion (Exodus 21:12–14, 18–27)

David P. Wright

in Inventing God's Law: How the Covenant Code of the Bible Used and Revised the Laws of Hammurabi

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195304756
eISBN:
9780199866830
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304756.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Biblical Studies

This explores the compositional logic involved in creating the laws on homicide (Exodus 21:12–14), injury/assault (vv. 18–19), slave homicide (vv. 20–21), aggravated miscarriage (abortion; vv. ... More


Visual Memory

Steven J. Luck and Andrew Hollingworth (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195305487
eISBN:
9780199894260
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305487.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Vision and memory are two of the most intensively studied topics in psychology and neuroscience, and the intersection between them — visual memory — is emerging as a fertile ground for research. ... More


Introduction

Thomas W. Cronin, Sönke Johnsen, N. Justin Marshall, and Eric J. Warrant

in Visual Ecology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151847
eISBN:
9781400853021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151847.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This introductory chapter talks about how every creature is guided by its eyes as it carries out its accustomed behaviors. Each animal's eyes allows it to execute the behavior necessary for its ... More


Making Morality in Religion

Webb Keane

in Ethical Life: Its Natural and Social Histories

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691167732
eISBN:
9781400873593
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691167732.003.0007
Subject:
Anthropology, Social and Cultural Anthropology

This chapter provides an understanding of the demand for moral consistency that motivates a pair of thriving contemporary piety movements, one Christian (the Urapmin Charismatics), the other Muslim ... More


Cortical Control of Visuomotor Reflexes

Robert Rafal

in Principles of Frontal Lobe Function

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195134971
eISBN:
9780199864157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195134971.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter uses eye movements as a model system to investigate how midbrain reflex circuits and frontal and parietal systems for eye movement control combine to produce goal-directed behavior. ... More


Language Is Spatial, Not Special: On the Demise of the Symbolic Approximation Hypothesis

Michael J. Spivey, Daniel C. Richardson, and Carlos A. Zednik

in The Spatial Foundations of Language and Cognition

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199553242
eISBN:
9780191720444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199553242.003.0002
Subject:
Linguistics, Semantics and Pragmatics, Psycholinguistics / Neurolinguistics / Cognitive Linguistics

Cognitive science has made as much progress as possible with theories of discrete amodal symbolic computation that too coarsely approximate the neural processes underlying cognition. We describe a ... More


Effects of visual deprivation

Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers

in Seeing in Depth: Volume 1: Basic Mechanics/ Volume 2: Depth Perception 2-Volume Set

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195367607
eISBN:
9780199867264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367607.003.0013
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter reviews the effects of early deprivation of sight in one or both eyes. The discussions cover the effects of dark rearing; monocular deprivation; the critical period; amblyopia; and ... More


The Pulfrich Effect

Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers

in Seeing in Depth: Volume 1: Basic Mechanics/ Volume 2: Depth Perception 2-Volume Set

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195367607
eISBN:
9780199867264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367607.003.0028
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

The processing of binocular disparity has temporal as well as spatial characteristics. This chapter discusses the question of how the visual system processes signals that arrive both at different ... More


Movements of the Mental Eye in Pictorial Space

Jan J. Koenderink

in Images and Artefacts of the Ancient World

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780197262962
eISBN:
9780191734533
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
British Academy
DOI:
10.5871/bacad/9780197262962.003.0011
Subject:
Archaeology, Methodology and Techniques

When an observer is faced with a straight photograph, the observer can either look at the image or look into the photograph. This manner of observing photographs presents a difference that is ... More


Binocular summation, masking, and transfer

Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers

in Seeing in Depth: Volume 1: Basic Mechanics/ Volume 2: Depth Perception 2-Volume Set

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195367607
eISBN:
9780199867264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367607.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter discusses the ways in which images into the eyes facilitate or suppress each other. Under certain circumstances, binocular images are perceived more readily and appear brighter than ... More


Vergence eye movements

Ian P. Howard and Brian J. Rogers

in Seeing in Depth: Volume 1: Basic Mechanics/ Volume 2: Depth Perception 2-Volume Set

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195367607
eISBN:
9780199867264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367607.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter on vergence eye movements discusses accommodation; eye movements in general; tonic vergence; proximal vergence; accommodation and vergence; vergence evoked by disparity; vertical ... More


The Optical Building Blocks of Eyes

Thomas W. Cronin, Sönke Johnsen, N. Justin Marshall, and Eric J. Warrant

in Visual Ecology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691151847
eISBN:
9781400853021
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691151847.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter analyzes the optical building blocks of eyes. Irrespective of their optical specializations, all eyes have one thing in common: they collect and absorb light arriving from different ... More


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