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Reticulate evolution of disease vectors and diseases

Michael L. Arnold

in Reticulate Evolution and Humans: Origins and Ecology

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199539581
eISBN:
9780191716225
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539581.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

A goal shared by this chapter with all the other parts of this book is to emphasize the ubiquity of reticulate evolution as an agent of genetic and evolutionary change. Another goal, unique to the ... More


Evolution of specificity and diversity

Denis C. Shields, Catriona R. Johnston, Iain M. Wallace, and Richard J. Edwards

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The divergence of proteins following gene duplication has long been recognized as an important process in the evolution of both new and specific protein functions. For functional divergence to occur, ... More


Detecting Positive Selection

Norman A. Johnson

in Darwinian Detectives: Revealing the Natural History of Genes and Genomes

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195306750
eISBN:
9780199790203
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306750.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Positive natural selection, though rare in comparison with negative selection, is the main evolutionary force responsible for adaptive evolutionary change. Using the neutral theory to generate null ... More


Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory: An Introduction

James A.R. Marshall

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691161563
eISBN:
9781400866564
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691161563.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Social behavior has long puzzled evolutionary biologists, since the classical theory of natural selection maintains that individuals should not sacrifice their own fitness to affect that of others. ... More


Adaptive Dynamics: A Framework for Modeling the Long-Term Evolutionary Dynamics of Quantitative Traits

Michael Doebeli

in The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199595372
eISBN:
9780191774799
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199595372.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

To describe evolution in the general case of frequency-dependent selection, one needs a mathematical framework that describes how fitness landscapes change dynamically as a consequence of ... More


Evading predators

Anne E. Magurran

in Evolutionary Ecology: The Trinidadian Guppy

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198527855
eISBN:
9780191713576
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198527855.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Trinidadian guppies provided one of the first experimental demonstrations that predators have a significant impact on behaviour and morphology. This chapter begins with a brief general introduction ... More


The Experimental Study of Reverse Evolution

Suzanne Estes and Henrique Teotónio

in Experimental Evolution: Concepts, Methods, and Applications of Selection Experiments

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520247666
eISBN:
9780520944473
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520247666.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on the experimental researches on reverse evolution, and discusses adaptive landscape models, which provide a useful framework to quantify contingencies of evolutionary change. ... More


Evolution through Genetic Exchange

Michael L. Arnold

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199229031
eISBN:
9780191728266
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199229031.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Even before the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, the perception of evolutionary change has been a tree-like pattern of diversification — with divergent branches spreading further and ... More


Introduction

Rama S. Singh, Jianping Xu, and Rob J. Kulathinal

in Rapidly Evolving Genes and Genetic Systems

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199642274
eISBN:
9780191774751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642274.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Evolutionary rates not only reflect the tempo at which genotypes, phenotypes, and species lineages are transformed over time but also offer valuable insight into the evolutionary processes involved ... More


Eco-evolutionary Dynamics

Andrew P. Hendry

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2018
ISBN:
9780691145433
eISBN:
9781400883080
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145433.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

In recent years, scientists have realized that evolution can occur on timescales much shorter than the “long lapse of ages” emphasized by Darwin—in fact, evolutionary change is occurring all around ... More


Rapidly Evolving Genes and Genetic Systems

Rama S. Singh, Jianping Xu, and Rob J. Kulathinal (eds)

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199642274
eISBN:
9780191774751
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642274.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Ever since the pioneering work of Darwin and Wallace, evolutionary biologists have attempted to understand the evolutionary dynamics of genetic systems. A range of theories on evolutionary rates — ... More


Evolutionary rescue under environmental change?

Rowan D.H. Barrett and Andrew P. Hendry

in Behavioural Responses to a Changing World: Mechanisms and Consequences

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780199602568
eISBN:
9780191810121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199602568.003.0016
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

This chapter considers the notion of evolutionary responses in mitigating the harmful effects of environmental change. It describes how the persistence of populations will depend of phenotypic ... More


Why Now?

Robert C. Berwick and Noam Chomsky

in Why Only Us: Language and Evolution

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780262034241
eISBN:
9780262333351
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034241.003.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

This chapter explains that the book is a collection of essays that address the evolution of language. It examines the tension between Darwinian infinitesimal evolutionary change and continuity, with ... More


A synthesis of neutralism and selectionism

Andreas Wagner

in The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations: A Theory of Transformative Change in Living Systems

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199692590
eISBN:
9780191774829
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199692590.003.0131
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Neutralism and selectionism are two opposing perspectives on evolutionary change. In the broadest sense, they apply to all evolutionary change, including evolutionary innovation. Any theory of ... More


The Thinking Ape: Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence

Richard Byrne

Published in print:
1995
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198522652
eISBN:
9780191688676
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522652.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

‘Intelligence’ has long been considered to be a feature unique to human beings, giving us the capacity to imagine, to think, to deceive, to make complex connections between cause and effect, to ... More


Why Only Us: Language and Evolution

Robert C. Berwick and Noam Chomsky

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
January 2017
ISBN:
9780262034241
eISBN:
9780262333351
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262034241.001.0001
Subject:
Linguistics, Theoretical Linguistics

We are born crying, but those cries signal the first stirring of language. Within a year or so, infants master the sound system of their language; a few years after that, they are engaging in ... More


Natural hybridization as a catalyst of rapid evolutionary change

Michael L. Arnold, Jennafer A.P. Hamlin, Amanda N. Brothers, and Evangeline S. Ballerini

in Rapidly Evolving Genes and Genetic Systems

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
December 2013
ISBN:
9780199642274
eISBN:
9780191774751
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199642274.003.0025
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Natural hybridization is a widespread phenomenon, detected among clades of fungi, plants, and animals. The potential outcomes of genetic exchange include adaptive trait evolution, speciation, and ... More


Genetic exchange and humans

Michael L. Arnold

in Divergence with Genetic Exchange

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780198726029
eISBN:
9780191792960
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726029.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter begins with information from analyses of genomic and phenotypic traits resulting in tests of alternative models of human evolution. The remaining sections illustrate how genetic exchange ... More


Epilogue

Michael L. Arnold

in Divergence with Genetic Exchange

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780198726029
eISBN:
9780191792960
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726029.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter provides a précis of the ideas discussed at length in the previous chapters. In particular, genetic exchange has been inferred in the evolutionary history of organisms from throughout ... More


The Biology and Disease Lesson

Robert A. McGuire and Philip R. P. Coelho

in Parasites, Pathogens, and Progress: Diseases and Economic Development

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262015660
eISBN:
9780262298391
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262015660.003.0008
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter explains that there is a certain amount of difficulty in reconciling the time dimension over which evolutionary changes take place and the aspects of time which surrounded humanity day ... More


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