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Genes, Germs, and Enzymes

Jan Sapp

in Genesis: The Evolution of Biology

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156195
eISBN:
9780199790340
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156195.003.0014
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter discusses the development of the understanding of genes, enzymes, and microbial genetics. The first breakthrough in understanding how genes actually functioned in the cell was made by ... More


Splicing

Pierluigi Frisco

in Computing with Cells: Advances in Membrane Computing

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199542864
eISBN:
9780191715679
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199542864.003.0009
Subject:
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Biology

Splicing P systems, the model of membrane system presented in this chapter, has been inspired by a complex biological process involving DNA molecules and enzymes. After introducing ... More


Uninvited Guests

Nicholas P. Money

in Carpet Monsters and Killer Spores: A Natural History of Toxic Mold

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195172270
eISBN:
9780199790258
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172270.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Microbiology

Black molds feed by secreting enzymes that dissolve complex molecules, like cellulose, as their filamentous hyphae insinuate themselves in their food sources. Many of the molds that grow in buildings ... More


Adaptations: Obtaining and Processing Food

J. Eduardo P. W. Bicudo, William A. Buttemer, Mark A. Chappell, James T. Pearson, and Claus Bech

in Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Birds

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199228447
eISBN:
9780191711305
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199228447.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Ornithology

This chapter reviews the diversity of feeding habits among birds and the consequences for their nutritional ecology. Different digestion strategies are also emphasized. Food selection is often ... More


The resurrection of ribonucleases from mammals: from ecology to medicine

Slim O. Sassi and Steven A. Benner

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Ribonucleases, well-known digestive enzymes that supported the development of much of protein science, emerged through an evolutionary history having a rich history of functional recruitment. This ... More


Enzyme replacement therapy

Elizabeth F. Neufeld

in Lysosomal Disorders of the Brain: Recent Advances in Molecular and Cellular Pathogenesis and Treatment

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198508786
eISBN:
9780191723803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508786.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter traces the development of the field of enzyme replacement. It explores the major remaining problem — i.e., treatment of lysosomal storage diseases with a major neurologic component, ... More


Biosynthesis and function of HNK-1 glycans

Firoze B. Jungalwala

in Neuroglycobiology: (Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198525387
eISBN:
9780191723872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525387.003.0003
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter describes HNK-1 glycans. While HNK-1 glycans have been known for some time, their functional significance has been elusive. The chapter describes findings regarding their roles, in ... More


Synthesis and function of glycosphingolipids

Koichi Furukawa

in Neuroglycobiology: (Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology)

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198525387
eISBN:
9780191723872
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525387.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

This chapter summarizes recent progress in studies of glycosyltransferases and relevant enzymes involved in the synthesis and modification glycosphingolipids. It describes novel approaches to ... More


The Evolution of Metabolism

Richard Firn

in Nature's Chemicals: The Natural Products that shaped our world

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199566839
eISBN:
9780191721700
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199566839.003.0009
Subject:
Biology, Ecology, Biochemistry / Molecular Biology

In biology, many long-held categorisations were finally abandoned because they were no longer productive or meaningful, or they lacked an adequate evolutionary underpinning. This chapter presents a ... More


Molecular Machines: A Materials Science Approach

Giovanni Zocchi

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780691173863
eISBN:
9781400890064
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691173863.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

This book presents a dynamic new approach to the physics of enzymes and DNA from the perspective of materials science. Unified around the concept of molecular deformability—how proteins and DNA ... More


Primary defects in lysosomal enzymes

Bryan G. Winchester

in Lysosomal Disorders of the Brain: Recent Advances in Molecular and Cellular Pathogenesis and Treatment

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198508786
eISBN:
9780191723803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508786.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

This chapter begins with a discussion of the molecular genetics of lysosomal enzyme deficiencies. It then discusses the relation of mutations to the structure and function of lysosomal enzymes, and ... More


Defects in lysosomal enzyme modification for catalytic activity

Kurt von Figura, Ljudmila V. Borissenko, Jens Fey, Jianhe Peng, Bernhard Schmidt, and Thomas Dierks

in Lysosomal Disorders of the Brain: Recent Advances in Molecular and Cellular Pathogenesis and Treatment

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198508786
eISBN:
9780191723803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508786.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

Two types of modifications are known so far that are required for catalytic activity of lysosomal enzymes. The first type represents the conversion of the catalytically inactive pro-form of ... More


Defects in lysosomal enzyme protection: galactosialidosis

Alessandra d'Azzo

in Lysosomal Disorders of the Brain: Recent Advances in Molecular and Cellular Pathogenesis and Treatment

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198508786
eISBN:
9780191723803
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508786.003.0007
Subject:
Neuroscience, Disorders of the Nervous System

Galactosialidosis (GS) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder of glycoprotein metabolism. This disease is unique among storage diseases in that it is caused by a primary defect in a ... More


Hans Thoenen

Larry R. Squire

in The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography Volume 6

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195380101
eISBN:
9780199864362
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195380101.003.0014
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

This chapter presents an autobiography of Hans Thoenen. Thoenen elucidated the mechanism of action of 6-hydroxydopamine that led to the serendipitous detection of trans-synaptic enzyme induction. ... More


THE ORGANIC WORLD

C.N. Hinshelwood

in The Structure of Physical Chemistry

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198570257
eISBN:
9780191717659
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570257.003.0022
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter discusses living matter. Topics covered include the creation of order by living things, the place of chemistry in the study of cell phenomena, bacteria, the law of growth, linked enzyme ... More


Proteases In Β-Amyloid Metabolism: Potential Therapeutic Targets Against Alzheimer‘;S Disease

Noureddine Brakch and Mohamed Rholam

in Neurovascular Medicine: Pursuing Cellular Longevity for Healthy Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195326697
eISBN:
9780199864874
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326697.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Proteases are extremely important signaling molecules that are involved in numerous vital processes. Protease signaling pathways are strictly regulated, and therefore the dysregulation of their ... More


Heart Failure—Optimal Pharmacological Therapy

J.Paul Rocchiccioli and John J. V. Mcmurray

in Supportive Care in Heart Failure

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
November 2011
ISBN:
9780198570288
eISBN:
9780191730030
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570288.003.0004
Subject:
Palliative Care, Patient Care and End-of-Life Decision Making, Pain Management and Palliative Pharmacology

This chapter addresses the state of knowledge in the evidence-based management of heart failure (HF) with medications. Diuretics were amongst the first therapies to be used in the treatment of HF. ... More


Kinematics of Enzyme Action

Giovanni Zocchi

in Molecular Machines: A Materials Science Approach

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780691173863
eISBN:
9781400890064
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691173863.003.0003
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

Enzymes are catalysts as well as the molecular machines that generate and maintain the nonequilibrium state of the cell. There are roughly two main mechanisms by which enzymes provide the control ... More


Dynamics of Enzyme Action

Giovanni Zocchi

in Molecular Machines: A Materials Science Approach

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
January 2019
ISBN:
9780691173863
eISBN:
9781400890064
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691173863.003.0004
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics

This chapter discusses the deformability of enzymes. This property allows enzymes to couple a chemical process to a cycle of deformations of the molecule, which can perform a task in the cell. This ... More


Biodegradation of polymeric systems

In-Joo Chin and Shogo Uematsu

in Nanocomposites with Biodegradable Polymers: Synthesis, Properties, and Future Perspectives

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199581924
eISBN:
9780191728853
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199581924.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Biodegradation can be defined as a process in which the degradation results from the action of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or algae. Biodegradable polymers may be broken down by the ... More


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