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INTRODUCTION

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0001
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter describes the central claims of the book. From a philosophical point of view, the book argues for an objective Bayesian interpretation of probability and an epistemic interpretation of ... More


Incommensurate Crystallography

Sander van Smaalen

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780198570820
eISBN:
9780191718762
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570820.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Aperiodic crystals are crystalline materials with atomic structures that lack translational symmetry. This book gives a comprehensive account of the superspace theory for the description of the ... More


Entropy and the Time Evolution of Macroscopic Systems

Walter T. Grandy, Jr.

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199546176
eISBN:
9780191720161
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199546176.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This book is based on the premise that the entropy concept, a fundamental element of probability theory as logic governs all of the thermal physics, both equilibrium and nonequilibrium. The ... More


Quantum Transport in Mesoscopic Systems: Complexity and Statistical Fluctuations. A Maximum Entropy Viewpoint

Pier A. Mello and Narendra Kumar

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198525820
eISBN:
9780191712234
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198525820.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This book presents a statistical theory of complex wave scattering and quantum transport in a class of physical systems of current interest having chaotic classical dynamics (e.g., microwave cavities ... More


OUTLOOK

Francesco Calogero

in Isochronous Systems

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199535286
eISBN:
9780191715853
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199535286.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

In Chapter 8 five directions of future research are tersely mentioned in order of increasing importance. The investigation of Diophantine relations, such as those reported in Appendix C. The ... More


Introduction to Information Theory

M. Vidyasagar

in Hidden Markov Processes: Theory and Applications to Biology

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691133157
eISBN:
9781400850518
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691133157.003.0002
Subject:
Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter provides an introduction to some elementary aspects of information theory, including entropy in its various forms. Entropy refers to the level of uncertainty associated with a random ... More


An introduction to maximum entropy

Peter Main

in Crystal Structure Analysis: Principles and Practice

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199219469
eISBN:
9780191722516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199219469.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Crystallography

Maximum entropy methods are used in crystallography for estimating reflection phases among other applications. This chapter explains the basic concepts behind maximum entropy, including entropy ... More


Denying Divinity: Apophasis in the Patristic Christian and Soto Zen Buddhist Traditions

J. P. Williams

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198269991
eISBN:
9780191683855
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198269991.001.0001
Subject:
Religion, Theology, World Religions

The classical texts of Christianity and Zen Buddhism contain resources with potent appeal to contemporary spirituality. The ‘apophatic’, or ‘negative’, may offer a means to integrate the conservation ... More


 The Origins of Life and the Cosmos as Evolutionary Themes

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

This chapter demonstrates that the origin of the universe was probabilistic, not preordained, because Heisenberg's uncertainty principle would have been violated at the level of the Big Bang. The ... More


Moral Reality

Paul Bloomfield

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195137132
eISBN:
9780199833092
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195137132.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

The book is a work in metaethics, constituting a defense of moral realism. The book begins with what I call a “modest transcendental argument” for the existence of the property of moral goodness ... More


OBJECTIVE BAYESIANISM

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0005
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Objective Bayesianism imposes two norms on degrees of belief: degrees of belief should be constrained by empirical information and they should otherwise be as equivocal as possible. The origins of ... More


LANGUAGE CHANGE

Jon Williamson

in Bayesian Nets and Causality: Philosophical and Computational Foundations

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198530794
eISBN:
9780191712982
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198530794.003.0012
Subject:
Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter discusses the situation in which an agent's language or domain may change. It is argued — against a principle of language invariance — that language contains implicit knowledge and so ... More


Energy flow

David M. Wilkinson

in Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An earth systems approach

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198568469
eISBN:
9780191717611
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568469.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

The second law of thermodynamics is central to understanding ecology, although it is ignored by most ecology text books. It follows from the second law that all organisms must draw free energy from ... More


Outlook

Vlatko Vedral

in Introduction to Quantum Information Science

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780199215706
eISBN:
9780191706783
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199215706.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This book has discussed the foundations of quantum information science as well as the relationship between physics and information theory in general. It has considered the quantum equivalents of the ... More


Epilogue

Robert Alicki and Mark Fannes

in Quantum Dynamical Systems

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198504009
eISBN:
9780191708503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198504009.003.0014
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter presents some theories relating quantum dynamical entropy and the open problem of a rigorous description of transport phenomena in macroscopic bodies.


Brain, Mind, and the Structure of Reality

Paul Nunez

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195340716
eISBN:
9780199776269
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195340716.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

Does the brain create the mind, or is some external entity involved? In addressing this hard problem of consciousness, we face a central human challenge: what do we really know and how do we know it? ... More


Density Stratification

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0012
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter examines the effects of large variations in density with depth, that is, density stratification. It first describes anelastic models for 2D cartesian box and 2D cylindrical annulus ... More


Entropy

Robert Alicki and Mark Fannes

in Quantum Dynamical Systems

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780198504009
eISBN:
9780191708503
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198504009.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter begins with the discussion of various meanings of the entropy: Boltzmann entropy, Shannon entropy, von Neumann entropy. It then presents the basic properties of the von Neumann entropy ... More


The Limits of Science: What Do We Really Know?

Paull Nunez

in Brain, Mind, and the Structure of Reality

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195340716
eISBN:
9780199776269
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195340716.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Development

This chapter considers the general limits of scientific knowledge, and identifies probability and entropy as important measures of human ignorance; scientific predictions are shown to be severely ... More


Envoi

Kenneth C. Calman

in The Potential for Health

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192629449
eISBN:
9780191723674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192629449.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This short end piece provides a personal view on the importance of health and what is needed to change it. It emphasises public and patient participation, and returns to the title and the word ... More


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