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Any Way out of ‘Exit from Work’? Reversing the Entrenched Pathways of Early Retirement

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Welfare and Work in the Open Economy Volume II: Diverse Responses to Common Challenges in Twelve Countries

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240920
eISBN:
9780191600180
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240922.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

After the first oil‐price crisis, many (but not all) OECD countries used early retirement as an adaptation to industrial restructuration, mass unemployment, the social needs of older workers, and the ... More


The Production‐Push Factors: The Political Economy of Labor Shedding

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter analyzes the economic ‘push’ factors that lead to early exit from work. Some firms co-sponsor early retirement via occupational pensions in order to facilitate restructuring. ... More


Actor Constellations and Interest Coalitions: Labor, Employers, and the State

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The chapter discusses how the state, employers, and organized labor promote and reform early retirement policies. What interests do workers, employers, and workplace representatives have in using ... More


Exit from Early Retirement: Paradigm Shifts, Policy Reversals, and Reform Obstacles

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Governments have realized the negative impact of early retirement on social expenditures and labor costs, responding with a paradigm shift away from passive labor market policies. Governments seek to ... More


The Protection‐Pull Factors: Multiple Pathways to Early Exit

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

There are multiple pathways to early exit from work: early pensions (retirement age before 65), flexible and partial pensions, special preretirement schemes, long-term unemployment benefits, and ... More


Ever Earlier Retirement: Comparing Employment Trajectories

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The chapter analyzes the main trends and cross-national variations in early exit from work for eight European countries, Japan, and the USA. Participation levels and employment rates of older workers ... More


Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Since the 1970s, early exit from work has become a major challenge in modern welfare states. Governments, employers, and unions alike once thought of early retirement as a peaceful solution to the ... More


Conclusion: From Path Dependence to Path Departure?

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This concluding chapter summarizes the main findings of the book, evaluating the protection-oriented ‘pull’ and production-oriented ‘push’ approaches to explain the long-term development and ... More


Introduction: The Paradox of Early Exit from Work

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Early retirement has become a major issue of current welfare state reforms in aging societies. This introductory chapter discusses the different protection-oriented ‘pull’ and production-oriented ... More


Sequences of Policy Failures and Effective Policy Responses

Anton Hemerijck and Martin Schludi

in Welfare and Work in the Open Economy Volume I: From Vulnerability to Competitiveness in Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240883
eISBN:
9780191600173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240884.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The chapter examines the dynamics of policy responses and their ultimate effectiveness. It identifies typical sequences of policy failures, caused by the misfit between new problems and existing ... More


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