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The Production‐Push Factors: The Political Economy of Labor Shedding

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This chapter analyzes the economic ‘push’ factors that lead to early exit from work. Some firms co-sponsor early retirement via occupational pensions in order to facilitate restructuring. ... More


Actor Constellations and Interest Coalitions: Labor, Employers, and the State

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0002
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The chapter discusses how the state, employers, and organized labor promote and reform early retirement policies. What interests do workers, employers, and workplace representatives have in using ... More


Exit from Early Retirement: Paradigm Shifts, Policy Reversals, and Reform Obstacles

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Governments have realized the negative impact of early retirement on social expenditures and labor costs, responding with a paradigm shift away from passive labor market policies. Governments seek to ... More


The Protection‐Pull Factors: Multiple Pathways to Early Exit

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0005
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

There are multiple pathways to early exit from work: early pensions (retirement age before 65), flexible and partial pensions, special preretirement schemes, long-term unemployment benefits, and ... More


Ever Earlier Retirement: Comparing Employment Trajectories

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0004
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The chapter analyzes the main trends and cross-national variations in early exit from work for eight European countries, Japan, and the USA. Participation levels and employment rates of older workers ... More


Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.001.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Since the 1970s, early exit from work has become a major challenge in modern welfare states. Governments, employers, and unions alike once thought of early retirement as a peaceful solution to the ... More


Conclusion: From Path Dependence to Path Departure?

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

This concluding chapter summarizes the main findings of the book, evaluating the protection-oriented ‘pull’ and production-oriented ‘push’ approaches to explain the long-term development and ... More


Any Way out of ‘Exit from Work’? Reversing the Entrenched Pathways of Early Retirement

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Welfare and Work in the Open Economy Volume II: Diverse Responses to Common Challenges in Twelve Countries

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240920
eISBN:
9780191600180
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240922.003.0011
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

After the first oil‐price crisis, many (but not all) OECD countries used early retirement as an adaptation to industrial restructuration, mass unemployment, the social needs of older workers, and the ... More


Introduction: The Paradox of Early Exit from Work

Bernhard Ebbinghaus

in Reforming Early Retirement in Europe, Japan and the USA

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199286119
eISBN:
9780191604089
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199286116.003.0001
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Early retirement has become a major issue of current welfare state reforms in aging societies. This introductory chapter discusses the different protection-oriented ‘pull’ and production-oriented ... More


Sequences of Policy Failures and Effective Policy Responses

Anton Hemerijck and Martin Schludi

in Welfare and Work in the Open Economy Volume I: From Vulnerability to Competitiveness in Comparative Perspective

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240883
eISBN:
9780191600173
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240884.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The chapter examines the dynamics of policy responses and their ultimate effectiveness. It identifies typical sequences of policy failures, caused by the misfit between new problems and existing ... More


France Directing Adjustment?

Jonah D. Levy

in Welfare and Work in the Open Economy Volume II: Diverse Responses to Common Challenges in Twelve Countries

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199240920
eISBN:
9780191600180
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199240922.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

The Bismarckian welfare state in France is financed by social security contributions to an even greater degree than is true in Germany. During the oil‐price crises of the 1970s and early 1980s, job ... More


Efficient Retirement Financial Strategies

William F. Sharpe, Jason S. Scott, and John G. Watson

in Recalibrating Retirement Spending and Saving

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199549108
eISBN:
9780191720734
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199549108.003.0009
Subject:
Business and Management, Pensions and Pension Management

Today's retirees face the daunting task of determining appropriate investment and spending strategies for their accumulated savings. Financial economists have addressed their problem using an ... More


Unions and Pensions: Theory, Evidence, and Implications

Tito Boeri, Agar Brugiavini, Lars Calmfors, Alison Booth, Michael Burda, Daniele Checchi, Bernhard Ebbinghaus, Richard Freeman, Pietro Garibaldi, Bertil Holmlund, Robin Naylor, Martin Schludi, Thierry Verdier, and Jelle Visser

in The Role of Unions in the Twenty-first Century: A Report for the Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199246588
eISBN:
9780191596001
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199246580.003.0009
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

The relationship between union actions and welfare outcomes is developed, taking the provision of old‐age insurance as a natural example. This chapter develops the economic theory of how unions go ... More


Firms and the Welfare State: When, Why, and How Does Social Policy Matter to Employers?

Isabela Mares

in Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199247752
eISBN:
9780191596346
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199247757.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic Systems

When and why have employers supported the development of institutions of social insurance that provide benefits to workers for various employment‐related risks in the areas of unemployment insurance, ... More


Belgium: a precursor muddling through?

Johan J. De Deken

in Regulating the Risk of Unemployment: National Adaptations to Post-Industrial Labour Markets in Europe

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199592296
eISBN:
9780191731471
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199592296.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, Political Economy

The Belgian case is hard to fit in the triple integration framework. The country never knew a dualist two-tiered unemployment benefit system, in need of benefit homogenization. The transition to a ... More


Early exit from the labour market, social exclusion and marginalisation in the UK

Philip Taylor

in The changing face of welfare: Consequences and outcomes from a citizenship perspective

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9781861345929
eISBN:
9781447303701
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Policy Press
DOI:
10.1332/policypress/9781861345929.003.0013
Subject:
Social Work, Social Policy

This chapter examines early exit and its consequences for marginalisation in the UK. In contrast to the case of the Nordic countries discussed elsewhere in this volume, early exit from the labour ... More


Early Retirement, Mental Health, and Social Networks

Axel Börsch-Supan and Morten Schuth

in Discoveries in the Economics of Aging

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780226146096
eISBN:
9780226146126
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226146126.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

This paper explores the interrelationships between early retirement, mental health—especially cognition—and the size and composition of social networks among older people. While early retirement ... More


Health, Financial Incentives, and Early Retirement: Microsimulation Evidence for Germany

Hendrik Jürges, Lars Thiel, Tabea Bucher-Koenen, Johannes Rausch, Morten Schuth, and Axel Börsch-Supan

in Social Security Programs and Retirement Around the World: Disability Insurance Programs and Retirement

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780226262574
eISBN:
9780226262604
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226262604.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Public and Welfare

About 20% of German workers retire on disability pensions. Disability pensions provide fairly generous benefits for those who are not already age-eligible for an old-age pension and who are deemed ... More


Micro-Modeling of Retirement Decisions in Germany

Axel Börsch-Supan, Reinhold Schnabel, Simone Kohnz, and Giovanni Mastrobuoni

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Micro-Estimation

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226310183
eISBN:
9780226309989
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226309989.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Germans retire early, with average retirement age about fifty-nine-and-a-half years, half a year younger than the earliest eligibility age for old-age pensions and more than five years younger than ... More


Micro-Modeling of Retirement in Belgium

Arnaud Dellis, Raphaël Desmet, Alain Jousten, and Sergio Perelman

in Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World: Micro-Estimation

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226310183
eISBN:
9780226309989
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226309989.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The widespread use of various early retirement programs makes Belgium the country with the lowest average retirement age in the Western world, which is approximately fifty-seven years old for men. ... More


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