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All Bark, No Bite? The Regulation of Prisons in England and Wales

Christopher Hood, Colin Scott, Oliver James, George Jones, and Tony Travers

in Regulation Inside Government: Waste-Watchers, Quality Police, and Sleazebusters

Published in print:
1999
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198280996
eISBN:
9780191599491
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198280998.003.0006
Subject:
Political Science, UK Politics

Examines regulation of prison standards by arms‐length oversight bodies, which generally had much stronger capacities for monitoring than enforcement. Prisons in England and Wales are subject to one ... More


 Evolution of the DNA World and the Chance Events That Accompanied It: More about Complexity

Paul F. Lurquin and Linda Stone

in Evolution and Religious Creation Myths: How Scientists Respond

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195315387
eISBN:
9780199785674
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315387.003.0006
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

First life-forms appeared at least as early as 3.5 billion years ago in the form of prokaryotes. Some of these species developed oxygenic photosynthesis, which resulted in the presence of oxygen gas ... More


International Bureaucracy and the Debasement of Mercy

Arthur C. Helton

in The Price of Indifference: Refugees and Humanitarian Action in the New Century

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780199250318
eISBN:
9780191599477
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199250316.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, International Relations and Politics

Duplication of efforts is endemic in the humanitarian ‘new economy’ that has emerged over the past decade, and gaps are more prevalent than structure in international humanitarian action. Any future ... More


Segmental duplications and indel polymorphisms

Julian C. Knight

in Human Genetic Diversity: Functional Consequences for Health and Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199227693
eISBN:
9780191711015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227693.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

In this chapter the theme of structural genomic variation is continued with a particular focus on segmental duplications. The origins and extent of segmental duplications in humans and other species ... More


Regional Comparisons

Mark Casson

in The World's First Railway System: Enterprise, Competition, and Regulation on the Railway Network in Victorian Britain

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199213979
eISBN:
9780191707469
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213979.003.0004
Subject:
Business and Management, Business History, Organization Studies

A national railway system can be analyzed as a collection of regional sub-systems joined by an inter-regional trunk network. A major weakness of the British railway system, as developed in Victorian ... More


The Genetics of Evolutionary Novelties

Günter P. Wagner

in Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691156460
eISBN:
9781400851461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156460.003.0007
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter examines the molecular genetics of evolutionary novelties. In particular, it investigates which molecular mechanisms might be involved in the origination of novel gene regulatory ... More


Flowers

Günter P. Wagner

in Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691156460
eISBN:
9781400851461
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691156460.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter focuses on the developmental evolution of flowers and flower organ identity. It reviews some of the most important insights that have been gained from research on the developmental ... More


Linking sequence to function in drug design with ancestral sequence reconstruction

Janos T. Kodra, Marie Skovgaard, Dennis Madsen, and David A. Liberles

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

Many bioactive peptides and proteins of pharmaceutical interest are found in animal venoms. Nature often reuses scaffolds within protein frameworks to develop new properties. The binding core of the ... More


Evolution of specificity and diversity

Denis C. Shields, Catriona R. Johnston, Iain M. Wallace, and Richard J. Edwards

in Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199299188
eISBN:
9780191714979
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199299188.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The divergence of proteins following gene duplication has long been recognized as an important process in the evolution of both new and specific protein functions. For functional divergence to occur, ... More


Human Genetic Diversity: Functional Consequences for Health and Disease

Julian C. Knight

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199227693
eISBN:
9780191711015
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227693.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

This book describes the remarkable progress which has been made in defining the extent and nature of human genetic variation, and its many consequences for us as individuals and in understanding ... More


Cytogenetics and large scale structural genomic variation

Julian C. Knight

in Human Genetic Diversity: Functional Consequences for Health and Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199227693
eISBN:
9780191711015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227693.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

Cytogenetics has played a fundamental role in advancing our understanding of human genetic variation. Advances in this field are set in a historical context, describing the microscopically visible ... More


Copy number variation in health and susceptibility to disease

Julian C. Knight

in Human Genetic Diversity: Functional Consequences for Health and Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199227693
eISBN:
9780191711015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227693.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

In this chapter submicroscopic structural variation is described with a particular focus on copy number variation. There is a growing body of evidence to show that copy number variation is a common ... More


Submicroscopic structural variation and genomic disorders

Julian C. Knight

in Human Genetic Diversity: Functional Consequences for Health and Disease

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199227693
eISBN:
9780191711015
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227693.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics, Disease Ecology / Epidemiology

In this chapter the basis and nature of genomic disorders are described with examples including DiGeorge Syndrome, Williams-Beuren syndrome, Charcot Marie Tooth disease, Prader-Willi, and Angelman ... More


Animal phylogenetics

Alessandro Minelli

in Perspectives in Animal Phylogeny and Evolution

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780198566205
eISBN:
9780191713866
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566205.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

The single main root of phylogenetics is Hennig's reformulation of the comparative method, but the empirical basis has increased enormously in recent years with the availability of an exponentially ... More


Functional Divergence after Gene Duplication: Statistical Modeling

Xun Gu

in Statistical Theory and Methods for Evolutionary Genomics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199213269
eISBN:
9780191594762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213269.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

Many organisms have undergone genome-wide or local chromosome duplication events during their evolution. As a result, many genes are represented as several paralogs in the genome with related but ... More


Functional Divergence after Gene Duplication: Applications and Others

Xun Gu

in Statistical Theory and Methods for Evolutionary Genomics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199213269
eISBN:
9780191594762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213269.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

As most amino acid substitutions are not related to the functional divergence but only represent the neutral evolution, it becomes crucial how to distinguish statistically between these two ... More


Expression between Duplicate Genes: Genome‐Wide Analysis

Xun Gu

in Statistical Theory and Methods for Evolutionary Genomics

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199213269
eISBN:
9780191594762
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213269.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Biomathematics / Statistics and Data Analysis / Complexity Studies

Expression divergence between duplicate genes has long been a subject of great interest to geneticists and evolutionists. Ohno proposed that expression divergence is the first step in the functional ... More


Gene duplication

Michael L. Arnold

in Evolution through Genetic Exchange

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780199229031
eISBN:
9780191728266
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199229031.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Evolutionary Biology / Genetics

This chapter considers instances where the genetic exchange, in this case resulting in genomic duplications, has derived from sexual reproduction as well as other forms of recombination. It looks at ... More


Heaven, Trinity, and Personal Identity

Jerry L. Walls

in Heaven: The Logic of Eternal Joy

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780195113020
eISBN:
9780199834815
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195113020.003.0005
Subject:
Religion, Theology

The discussion in this chapter centers on the particular problems posed for personal identity by the concept of heaven. Particular aspects addressed are the Trinity, the doctrine of resurrection ... More


The United Nations Human Rights Council, Its Special Procedures, and Its Relationship with the Treaty Bodies: Complementarity or Competition? 1

Sir Nigel Rodley

in New Institutions for Human Rights Protection

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780199570546
eISBN:
9780191705496
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199570546.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration

There are two broad clusters of United Nations human rights machinery: those set up under international human rights treaties (treaty bodies) and those established under the Human Rights Council ... More


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