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The Role of Dopamine in the Motivational Vulnerability to Addiction

George F. Koob and Michel Le Moal

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0026
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

This chapter discusses the role of dopamine in addiction. Research over the past 50 years has revealed that the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system has an essential role in the acute reinforcing ... More


 Crime and Punishment

Mike W. Martin

in From Morality to Mental Health: Virtue and Vice in a Therapeutic Culture

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780195304718
eISBN:
9780199786572
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195304713.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy

This chapter presents an integrated, moral-therapeutic perspective on crime and punishment. It begins by noting how the morality-therapy dichotomy constricted classical debates about punishment. ... More


Imaging Dopamine’s Role in Drug Abuse and Addiction

Nora D. Volkow, Joanna S. Fowler, Gene-Jack Wang, Frank Telang, and Ruben Baler

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0028
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

This chapter begins with a discussion of the relationship between acute dopamine (DA) increases in the human brain and drug reinforcement. It then covers the long-term effects of drugs of abuse on DA ... More


Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use among Gay and Bisexual Men

David G. Ostrow and Ron Stall

in Unequal Opportunity: Health Disparities Affecting Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195301533
eISBN:
9780199863815
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195301533.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter details the epidemiology of use and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and recreational drug use among gay and bisexual men in the United States. The review highlights the history of use and ... More


Is Drug Testing in the Workplace Worthwhile?

Sara Smucker Barnwell and Mitch Earleywine

in Pot Politics: Marijuana and the Costs of Prohibition

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195188028
eISBN:
9780199893577
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195188028.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Psychopharmacology

Drug testing has emerged as many employers' answer to the problem of employee substance use. Drug-testing programs seek to provide an objective basis for mandatory employee referral to treatment ... More


Drugs of Abuse and Aggression

Jill M. Grimes , Lesley Ricci , Khampaseuth Rasakham , and Richard H. Melloni, Jr.

in Biology of Aggression

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195168761
eISBN:
9780199865444
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195168761.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic

This chapter summarizes studies examining the link between drugs of abuse and the behavioral neurobiology of aggressive behavior in animal models. It considers studies examining how drug abuse ... More


Dopaminergic Mechanisms in Drug-Seeking Habits and the Vulnerability to Drug Addiction

Barry J. Everitt, David Belin, Jeffrey W. Dalley, and Trevor W. Robbins

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0027
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

This chapter begins with a discussion of the notion that dopamine (DA) transmission provides a neurochemical mechanism of reinforcement in the brain. It then covers the molecular mechanisms of action ... More


Subjective Effects of Opioids

Sandy M. Comer and James P. Zacny

in Mind-Altering Drugs: The Science of Subjective Experience

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195165319
eISBN:
9780199894055
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195165319.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Psychopharmacology

Opioids, which have long been abused, are capable of producing euphoria and other “positive” subjective effects. Although the relationship between positive subjective effects and abuse of a drug is ... More


The international dimensions of drug use

Thomas Babor, Jonathan Caulkins, Griffith Edwards, Benedikt Fischer, David Foxcroft, Keith Humphreys, Isidore Obot, Jürgen Rehm, Peter Reuter, Robin Room, Ingeborg Rossow, and John Strang

in Drug Policy and the Public Good

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199557127
eISBN:
9780191721373
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199557127.003.003
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter shows that significant progress has been made in developing the methodological tools needed to assess variations in incidence rates of drug use and prevalence trends over time. Topics ... More


Cannabis Use and Misuse

Mitch Earleywine

in Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
April 2010
ISBN:
9780195138931
eISBN:
9780199893270
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195138931.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Psychopharmacology

This chapter describes the use and misuse of cannabis. Marijuana is the most commonly consumed illicit drug, with 200 to 300 million users worldwide. Approximately one-third of Americans have tried ... More


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