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The Realm of Reason

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199594931
eISBN:
9780191595745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199594931.003.0008
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

In the course of the eighteenth century, natural philosophy began to take on a new cultural standing, emerging as the paradigm bearer of, and the standard for, cognitive values. It was Fontenelle who ... More


The Fortunes of a Mechanical Model for Natural Philosophy

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199594931
eISBN:
9780191595745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199594931.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

The basic assumption of ‘rational mechanics’ was that all natural philosophy was mechanics, and that, as mechanics was pursued with greater and greater detail and sophistication, the rest of natural ... More


Historical Understanding and the Human Condition

Stephen Gaukroger

in The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780199594931
eISBN:
9780191595745
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199594931.003.0013
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, General

In a context in which traditional religious and humanistic assumptions about universal moral, social, and other values have come loose, the eighteenth‐century employment of developmental stages in ... More


Enlightenment Shadows

Genevieve Lloyd

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199669561
eISBN:
9780191757013
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669561.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

The idea of the Enlightenment has become a touchstone for emotional and often contradictory articulations of contemporary western values. Enlightenment Shadows is a study of the place of ... More


Locke among the ‘Philosophes’

John W. Yolton

in LOCKE AND FRENCH MATERIALISM

Published in print:
1991
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198242741
eISBN:
9780191680557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198242741.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

This chapter explores some of the writings of the better-known French writers, many of whom were associated with Diderot and d'Alembert in the great Encyclopédie; others, such as La Mettrie and ... More


Anglomania, Anglicisme, and the ‘British Model’

Jonathan I. Israel

in Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man 1670-1752

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780199279227
eISBN:
9780191700040
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279227.003.0014
Subject:
History, History of Ideas, European Modern History

This chapter discusses British Deism, the rejection of republican radicalism, and the French anglicisme in the mid-18th century. Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Maupertuis, the giants among the French ... More


Effictions

Peter Szendy

in Phantom Limbs: On Musical Bodies

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780823267057
eISBN:
9780823272303
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
DOI:
10.5422/fordham/9780823267057.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Aesthetics

A reading of some of Diderot’s texts (particularly Rameau’s Nephew) brings us to resume an old figure of rhetoric: effictio, in other words the description of a fictive body that still begins to ... More


Boundary Layers

S. G. Rajeev

in Fluid Mechanics: A Geometrical Point of View

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198805021
eISBN:
9780191843136
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805021.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

It is found experimentally that all the components of fluid velocity (not just thenormal component) vanish at a wall. No matter how small the viscosity, the large velocity gradients near a wall ... More


Drama and Life

Angelica Goodden

in Rousseau's Hand: The Crafting of a Writer

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199683833
eISBN:
9780191766190
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683833.003.0005
Subject:
Literature, 16th-century and Renaissance Literature, European Literature

This chapter details Rousseau's writing of and on drama, and dwells on the Lettre à d’Alembert's contrasting the effects of playgoing with the moral benefits of daily life in theatre-free, ... More


‘Changing the Common Mode of Thinking’: d’Alembert and Diderot on the Encyclopedia

Genevieve Lloyd

in Enlightenment Shadows

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2013
ISBN:
9780199669561
eISBN:
9780191757013
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199669561.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, History of Philosophy

The chapter opens with a discussion of metaphors of light and of motion in Bacon’s essay On Truth, leading into an examination of the tensions between timelessness and change in the Enlightenment ... More


Rationalism in the History of Mechanics

Olivier Darrigol

in Physics and Necessity: Rationalist Pursuits from the Cartesian Past to the Quantum Present

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780198712886
eISBN:
9780191781360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712886.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter is a history of necessity arguments in classical mechanics, including the seventeenth-century opposition between Descartes’s rationalism and Newton’s empiricism, the rationalism of ... More


The Necessity of Classical Mechanics

Olivier Darrigol

in Physics and Necessity: Rationalist Pursuits from the Cartesian Past to the Quantum Present

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
June 2014
ISBN:
9780198712886
eISBN:
9780191781360
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198712886.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, History of Physics

This chapter combines some assumptions of the rationalist founders of mechanics (the impossibility of perpetual motion, the causal relation between force and motion, the relativity principle, and ... More


Coda: Instituting the French Enlightenment: Diderot and d'Alembert Encyclopédie

in The Newton Wars and the Beginning of the French Enlightenment

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2013
ISBN:
9780226749457
eISBN:
9780226749471
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226749471.003.0009
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

Too many historians have recognized Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert's Encyclopédie as the defining text of the French Enlightenment. Just as many have argued that the project's initial ... More


Introduction

Jennifer Coopersmith

in The Lazy Universe: An Introduction to the Principle of Least Action

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780198743040
eISBN:
9780191802966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198743040.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

The chapter explains how the Principle of Least Action yields a unique answer to a physical problem irrespective of the frame of reference. The motivation arises from d’Alembert’s rousing words: “To ... More


D’Alembert’s Principle

Jennifer Coopersmith

in The Lazy Universe: An Introduction to the Principle of Least Action

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780198743040
eISBN:
9780191802966
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198743040.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

It is explained how the mysterious Principle of Virtual Work in statics is extended to the even more mysterious Principle of d’Alembert’s in dynamics. This is achieved by d’Alembert’s far-sighted ... More


Virtual Work & d’Alembert’s Principle

Peter Mann

in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Dynamics

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
August 2018
ISBN:
9780198822370
eISBN:
9780191861253
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198822370.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter discusses virtual work, returning to the Newtonian framework to derive the central Lagrange equation, using d’Alembert’s principle. It starts off with a discussion of generalised force, ... More


A Hundred and One Years of Mechanics: Newton to Lagrange via Daniel Bernoulli

Jennifer Coopersmith

in Energy, the Subtle Concept: The discovery of Feynman's blocks from Leibniz to Einstein

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
August 2015
ISBN:
9780198716747
eISBN:
9780191800955
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716747.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

Vis viva (kinetic energy) was discovered by Leibniz, and ‘s Gravesande’s experiments showed that both momentum and kinetic energy were important measures. The concept of ‘potential energy’ slowly ... More


Music as Science: The Contribution of d’Alembert

Cynthia Verba

in Music and the French Enlightenment: Rameau and the Philosophes in Dialogue

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780199381029
eISBN:
9780199381043
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199381029.003.0004
Subject:
Music, History, Western

There was considerable agreement among the philosophes that Rameau had achieved a breakthrough in music theory precisely because of his application of scientific principles. Despite this consensus, ... More


Euler’s Equations

S. G. Rajeev

in Fluid Mechanics: A Geometrical Point of View

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
October 2018
ISBN:
9780198805021
eISBN:
9780191843136
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780198805021.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Soft Matter / Biological Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

Euler derived the fundamental equations of an ideal fluid, that is, in the absence of friction (viscosity). They describe the conservation of momentum. We can derive from it the equation for the ... More


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