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Introduction

Susan W. Brenner

in Cyber Threats: The Emerging Fault Lines of the Nation State

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385014
eISBN:
9780199855414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385014.003.0001
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This introductory chapter begins with a description of a two-week series of sustained digital attacks against various components of Estonia's infrastructure, which began on April 26, 2007. The ... More


Cyberthreats: New Issues, New Challenges

Susan W. Brenner

in Cyber Threats: The Emerging Fault Lines of the Nation State

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385014
eISBN:
9780199855414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385014.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Cyberspace allows criminals, terrorists, and warriors to conceal their identities while launching attacks from almost any point on the globe to almost any other point. Cyberspace therefore almost ... More


Where Do We Go From Here?

Susan W. Brenner

in Cyber Threats: The Emerging Fault Lines of the Nation State

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195385014
eISBN:
9780199855414
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385014.003.0008
Subject:
Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Nation-states use a bipartite response system to maintain order: Professional law enforcement officers overtly maintain internal order by responding to violations of the criminal rules that control ... More


The Politics of the Internet I: Computer Networks, Civil Society, and the State

Manuel Castells

in The Internet Galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, Business, and Society

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780199255771
eISBN:
9780191698279
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199255771.003.0006
Subject:
Business and Management, Information Technology

This chapter examines the interaction between the Internet and processes of socio-political conflict, representation, and management by focusing on four distinct, though related, areas in which this ... More


Cyber War: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts

Jens David Ohlin, Kevin Govern, and Claire Finkelstein (eds)

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198717492
eISBN:
9780191787041
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717492.001.0001
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

Cyberweapons and cyberwarfare are one of the most dangerous innovations of recent years, and a significant threat to national security. Cyberweapons can imperil economic, political, and military ... More


U.S. Deterrence Planning and Iran

Jacquelyn K. Davis and Robert L. Pfaltzgraff

in Anticipating a Nuclear Iran: Challenges for U.S. Security

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231166225
eISBN:
9780231535946
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231166225.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Security Studies

This chapter offers some concluding observations and recommendations for U.S. policy on how to deter a nuclear Iran according to three heuristic models: a Defensive Iran, an Aggressive Iran, and an ... More


Binary Bullets: The Ethics of Cyberwarfare

Fritz Allhoff, Adam Henschke, and Bradley Jay Strawser (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780190221072
eISBN:
9780190221102
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190221072.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

Philosophical and ethical discussions of warfare are often tied to emerging technologies and techniques. Today we are presented with what many believe is a radical shift in the nature of war—the ... More


From Cyberwarfare to Cybersecurity in the Asia-Pacific and Beyond

Ye Zheng and Yang Fan

in China and Cybersecurity: Espionage, Strategy, and Politics in the Digital Domain

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780190201265
eISBN:
9780190201302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190201265.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

National security now depends on cyberspace, and cyberspace is global. Securing the cyberspace will require international cooperation; however, the threats emanating from cyberspace and cyberwarfare ... More


Chinese Writings on Cyberwarfare and Coercion

Kevin Pollpeter

in China and Cybersecurity: Espionage, Strategy, and Politics in the Digital Domain

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780190201265
eISBN:
9780190201302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190201265.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Although no official Chinese military document defining China’s cyberwarfare doctrine is available, this chapter relies on a variety of reputable Chinese primary sources to address these questions. ... More


The Chinese People’s Liberation Army Computer Network Operations Infrastructure

Mark A. Stokes

in China and Cybersecurity: Espionage, Strategy, and Politics in the Digital Domain

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780190201265
eISBN:
9780190201302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190201265.003.0007
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Chinese cyber espionage constitutes an advanced persistent threat (APT)—an intrusion above and beyond traditional cybercrime—to US national and economic security. Groups operating from PRC territory ... More


Civil-Military Integration and Cybersecurity: A Study of Chinese Information Warfare Militias

Robert Sheldon and Joe McReynolds

in China and Cybersecurity: Espionage, Strategy, and Politics in the Digital Domain

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780190201265
eISBN:
9780190201302
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190201265.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter assesses Chinese civil-military integration in the context of operations in the cyber domain, focusing particularly on the development of cyberwarfare capabilities in China’s militia ... More


Emerging Norms for Cyberwarfare

George R. Lucas

in Binary Bullets: The Ethics of Cyberwarfare

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780190221072
eISBN:
9780190221102
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190221072.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

Cyberconflict confronts nations with attacks on military, industrial, and civilian infrastructure and objects that violate conventional norms of war. This conflict represents both criminal theft and ... More


Distinctive Ethical Issues of Cyberwarfare

Randall R. Dipert

in Binary Bullets: The Ethics of Cyberwarfare

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
December 2015
ISBN:
9780190221072
eISBN:
9780190221102
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190221072.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, General

Most authors writing about the ethics of cyberwarfare have assumed that just war theory— including the revisionist perspectives—is a more-or-less finished and agreed-upon moral theory, and that just ... More


Germany: A Cautionary Tale

Lisa-Maria N. Neudert

in Computational Propaganda: Political Parties, Politicians, and Political Manipulation on Social Media

Published in print:
2018
Published Online:
November 2018
ISBN:
9780190931407
eISBN:
9780190934095
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/oso/9780190931407.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, International Relations and Politics

As concerns over misinformation, political bots, and the impact of social media on public discourse manifest in Germany, this chapter explores the role of computational propaganda in and around ... More


The Nature of War and the Idea of “Cyberwar”

Larry May

in Cyber War: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198717492
eISBN:
9780191787041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717492.003.0002
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter argues that cyberwar is not sufficiently like normal cases of war or armed conflict to justify the relaxation of the rules and laws concerning intentional killing, and that there are ... More


Is There Anything Morally Special about Cyberwar?

James L Cook

in Cyber War: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198717492
eISBN:
9780191787041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717492.003.0003
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter addresses the philosophical question of whether the just-war tradition (JWT) can accommodate cyberwar. It argues that while the received JWT can accommodate the intentions and effects of ... More


Cyber Causation

Jens David Ohlin

in Cyber War: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198717492
eISBN:
9780191787041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717492.003.0004
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter argues that the increasing threat and deployment of cyberweapons will force the law of war to develop a sophisticated and nuanced account of causation. It first explains why causation is ... More


Cyberterrorism and Enemy Criminal Law

Stuart Macdonald

in Cyber War: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198717492
eISBN:
9780191787041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717492.003.0005
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter examines the UK’s criminal justice-based response to the threat of cyberterrorism. In recent years the UK has introduced a range of terrorism-related legislation, which has significantly ... More


Cyberwar versus Cyber Attack: The Role of Rhetoric in the Application of Law to Activities in Cyberspace

Laurie R Blank

in Cyber War: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198717492
eISBN:
9780191787041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717492.003.0006
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

The interplay between law and rhetoric forms an important backdrop for analyzing international legal norms governing state response to cyber threats. First, the term “cyberwar” or “cyberwarfare” is ... More


The Rise of Non-State Actors in Cyberwarfare

Nicolò Bussolati

in Cyber War: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts

Published in print:
2015
Published Online:
April 2015
ISBN:
9780198717492
eISBN:
9780191787041
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717492.003.0007
Subject:
Law, Public International Law, Criminal Law and Criminology

This chapter focuses on the rise of non-state actors in cyberwarfare and its impact on international law. The first part considers how digital technologies stimulated an increasing role for non-state ... More


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