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Putting the Pica Pieces Together

Sera L. Young

in Craving Earth: Understanding Pica--the Urge to Eat Clay, Starch, Ice, and Chalk

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231146098
eISBN:
9780231517898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231146098.003.0010
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter first discusses what we know about pica. Specifically that pica is ubiquitous; pica may be adaptive; pica is not due to hunger; pica is unlikely to contribute micronutrients to the diet; ... More


Neurogastronomy: How the Brain Creates Flavor and Why It Matters

Gordon Shepherd

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159111
eISBN:
9780231530316
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159111.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This book embarks on a paradigm-shifting trip through the “human brain flavor system,” laying the foundations for a new scientific field: neurogastronomy. Challenging the belief that the sense of ... More


Flavor and Emotions

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Neurogastronomy: How the Brain Creates Flavor and Why It Matters

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159111
eISBN:
9780231530316
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159111.003.0020
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter discusses the regions of the brain that produce emotion by creating “images of desire”. It asks: What kind of brain activity represents our motivation to desire a flavor, our emotion ... More


Flavor and Obesity

Gordon M. Shepherd

in Neurogastronomy: How the Brain Creates Flavor and Why It Matters

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231159111
eISBN:
9780231530316
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231159111.003.0022
Subject:
Neuroscience, Sensory and Motor Systems

This chapter explains how fast foods capture the human brain flavor system with excessive activation, and how this leads to poor nutrition and obesity. The popularity of McDonald's French fries, for ... More


Craving Earth: Understanding Pica--the Urge to Eat Clay, Starch, Ice, and Chalk

Sera Young

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231146098
eISBN:
9780231517898
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231146098.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This book provides a portrait of pica, or non-food cravings, from earliest times to current times. It explains how humans have eaten earth, on purpose, for more than 2,300 years and that people also ... More


What on Earth?

Sera L. Young

in Craving Earth: Understanding Pica--the Urge to Eat Clay, Starch, Ice, and Chalk

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231146098
eISBN:
9780231517898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231146098.003.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

Pica is the scientific term for the craving and subsequent consumption of non-food items. While earth is the most commonly craved substance, the list of pica substances includes cornstarch, ice (if ... More


A Biocultural Approach: A Holistic Way to Study Pica

Sera L. Young

in Craving Earth: Understanding Pica--the Urge to Eat Clay, Starch, Ice, and Chalk

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231146098
eISBN:
9780231517898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231146098.003.0002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter outlines the biocultural framework, which is the perspective used to study pica. This framework spans both biology and culture. It encompasses the physical environment in which we have ... More


Poisons and Pathogens

Sera L. Young

in Craving Earth: Understanding Pica--the Urge to Eat Clay, Starch, Ice, and Chalk

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231146098
eISBN:
9780231517898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231146098.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter returns to what is clearly demarcated pica behavior, the purposive ingestion of craved non-food substances, and explores its purported negative consequences from a much more biomedical ... More


Dismissal and Damnation: A Historical Perspective on the Purported Causes of Pica

Sera L. Young

in Craving Earth: Understanding Pica--the Urge to Eat Clay, Starch, Ice, and Chalk

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231146098
eISBN:
9780231517898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231146098.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter deals with how, for centuries, pica has been considered to be a behavior that is at best useless, and at worst injurious. It presents six groups of people who have historically been ... More


Pica as a Micronutrient Supplement

Sera L. Young

in Craving Earth: Understanding Pica--the Urge to Eat Clay, Starch, Ice, and Chalk

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231146098
eISBN:
9780231517898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231146098.003.0008
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter continues the discussion began in Chapter 7 and explores the possibility that a micronutrient deficiency motivates pica. It examines predictions that can be made from this hypothesis: ... More


Pica to Protect and Detoxify

Sera L. Young

in Craving Earth: Understanding Pica--the Urge to Eat Clay, Starch, Ice, and Chalk

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231146098
eISBN:
9780231517898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231146098.003.0009
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health

This chapter examines the final adaptive hypothesis on why animals and humans eat non-food substances, the protection-detoxification hypothesis. Under this hypothesis, pica is a protective behavior, ... More


Addiction Between Compulsion and Choice

Richard Holton and Kent Berridge

in Addiction and Self-Control: Perspectives from Philosophy, Psychology, and Neuroscience

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780199862580
eISBN:
9780199369638
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199862580.003.0012
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Science, Moral Philosophy

We aim to find a middle path between disease models of addiction, and those that treat addictive choices as choices like any other. We develop an account of the disease element by focussing on the ... More


Irrational Action and Addiction

Timothy Schroeder

in What Is Addiction?

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
August 2013
ISBN:
9780262513111
eISBN:
9780262288248
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262513111.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter argues that addicts are “mugged” by their midbrain reward systems, conceived as forces acting outside the scope of their rationality, and combines ideas from neuroscience and the ... More


Cravings and Addictions: The Contributions of CRF to Approach, Ingestion, and Withdrawal

Jay Schulkin

in The CRF Signal: Uncovering an Information Molecule

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
June 2017
ISBN:
9780198793694
eISBN:
9780191835506
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198793694.003.0008
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, Behavioral Neuroscience

The allure of afflictions and appetites gone awry are endless in the modern era. They range from the endless junk food we eat, to the computer games that lock our children to distraction, compulsion, ... More


Obesity

Allan V. Horwitz

in What's Normal?: Reconciling Biology and Culture

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
September 2016
ISBN:
9780190603243
eISBN:
9780190603281
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190603243.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Social Theory

This chapter illustrates a case in which circumstances that were naturally shaped to cope with ancestral conditions are mismatched with contemporary environments—obesity. Natural selection led humans ... More


Compulsion and choice in addiction

Richard Holton and Kent Berridge

in Addiction and Choice: Rethinking the relationship

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
November 2016
ISBN:
9780198727224
eISBN:
9780191833427
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198727224.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Most accounts of addiction either see it as a disease, and hence outside the addict’s control, or else as involving chosen behavior, and hence within the addict’s control. Contrary conclusions about ... More


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