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Two Institutional Changes

Tetsuro Toya and Jennifer Amyx

in The Political Economy of the Japanese Financial Big Bang: Institutional Change in Finance and Public Policymaking

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780199292394
eISBN:
9780191603525
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199292396.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, South and East Asia

This chapter situates the Big Bang within broader financial sector developments and in the political economy in general. It uses the framework of ‘institutional change’ introduced in Chapter 3 to ... More


Of another shipwreck that happened later in the same year as the previous one but with not such happy outcome as was related above.

Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo

in Misfortunes and Shipwrecks in the Seas of the Indies, Islands, and Mainland of the Ocean Sea (1513–1548): Book Fifty of the 'General and Natural History of the Indies'

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813035406
eISBN:
9780813038377
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813035406.003.0030
Subject:
History, World Early Modern History

Three caravels departed Puerto Rico in May 1548. The largest vessel of 130 tons burthen was the Sancti Spíritus and was the flagship of the convoy. The smallest of the three ships, whose master was ... More


of two ships coming from spain to this island of Hispaniola; and the one two days ahead of the other was shipwrecked, the people aboard marooned on a deserted islet; and how two days later the second ship ran aground and sank upright on another nearby low-lying islet; and how miraculously the second ship was refloated and collected [317] the people from the first lost ship and came to this city of santo domingo, where the ship was repaired and returned to spain.

Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo

in Misfortunes and Shipwrecks in the Seas of the Indies, Islands, and Mainland of the Ocean Sea (1513–1548): Book Fifty of the 'General and Natural History of the Indies'

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813035406
eISBN:
9780813038377
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813035406.003.0007
Subject:
History, World Early Modern History

In 1523, a convoy of two ships sailed from Spain to Santo Domingo. The captain and master of one was Francisco Vara, a resident of Triana, and the captain of the other was Diego Sánchez Colchero, ... More


Patrons or Predators? Foreign Servicemen, Technology, and Art within Official Soviet Cultural Identity 1941–45

Timothy Johnston

in Being Soviet: Identity, Rumour, and Everyday Life under Stalin 1939–1953

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780199604036
eISBN:
9780191731600
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199604036.003.0003
Subject:
History, European Modern History, Political History

During the Great Patriotic War the officially sponsored identity of Soviet civilization shifted to embrace foreign films, jazz, and science. Lend Lease presented a challenge to the Soviet government: ... More


“The Next Step”

Daniel F. Harrington

in Berlin on the Brink: The Blockade, the Airlift, and the Early Cold War

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780813136134
eISBN:
9780813136837
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University Press of Kentucky
DOI:
10.5810/kentucky/9780813136134.003.0007
Subject:
History, European Modern History

The Western powers had to decide their next step; Chapter 6 describes their deliberations. Long-term prospects appeared bleak: sooner or later the Western powers would have to abandon the city to ... More


The Spanish Convoy of 1750: Heaven's Hammer and International Diplomacy

James A. Lewis

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2011
ISBN:
9780813033587
eISBN:
9780813038629
Item type:
book
Publisher:
University Press of Florida
DOI:
10.5744/florida/9780813033587.001.0001
Subject:
Archaeology, Underwater Archaeology

Spanish flotas (convoys) traversed the Atlantic throughout the colonial period, shuttling men and goods between the Old and New Worlds. In August 1750, at the height of hurricane season, a small ... More


Probability Multiplication as a New Principle in Psychophysics

Michael Morgan, Charles Chubb, and Joshua Solomon

in Seeing Spatial Form

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195172881
eISBN:
9780199847570
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195172881.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter provides a general look at the presence of psychophysics in opponent Reichardt detectors and coincidence detectors. Beginning with motion, evidence can be initially seen for a ... More


Staying Afloat: Risk and Uncertainty in Spanish Atlantic World Trade, 1760-1820

Jeremy Baskes

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780804785426
eISBN:
9780804786355
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804785426.001.0001
Subject:
History, Latin American History

Early modern, long-distance trade was fraught with risk and uncertainty, driving merchants to seek means to reduce them. In the traditional historiography on Spanish colonial trade, the role of risk ... More


Feeding the Fortress: Malta, Summer 1942

Thomas Scheben

in El Alamein and the Struggle for North Africa: International Perspectives from the Twenty-first Century

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
September 2014
ISBN:
9789774165818
eISBN:
9781617971297
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
American University in Cairo Press
DOI:
10.5743/cairo/9789774165818.003.0008
Subject:
History, Military History

how did the population of the small but strategically important island in mid-Mediterranean manage to hold-out under conditions of siege and near starvation? This chapter is an account of the trials ... More


Hong Kong under the Japanese Occupation, 1942–1945

Kwong Chi Man and Tsoi Yiu Lun

in Eastern Fortress: A Military History of Hong Kong, 1840-1970

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
September 2015
ISBN:
9789888208708
eISBN:
9789888313457
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Hong Kong University Press
DOI:
10.5790/hongkong/9789888208708.003.0009
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter deals with the period of Japanese occupation and the Japanese attempt to use Hong Kong as a shipping hub to support their war effort. The Anglo-Chinese underground resistance such as the ... More


In the Imperial Russian Army, 1901–1904

Anita Shapira

in Yosef Haim Brenner: A Life

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2015
ISBN:
9780804785273
eISBN:
9780804793131
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804785273.003.0003
Subject:
Society and Culture, Jewish Studies

This chapter describes Brenner's service in the tsar's army for two-and-a-quarter years, his innocence and naïvety, and his being taken advantage of by his more brutal and conniving comrades. During ... More


The Pertinence of the Past in Computing the Future

Elting E. Morison

in Men, Machines, and Modern Times

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
May 2017
ISBN:
9780262529310
eISBN:
9780262336581
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262529310.003.0004
Subject:
History, History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

This chapter discusses the pertinence of the past, or “what possible use is there in history,” in computing the future. It begins with a brief account of a situation that occurred in March 1943, when ... More


The Institutions of Trade and the Reduction of Market Risk: The Convoy System

Jeremy Baskes

in Staying Afloat: Risk and Uncertainty in Spanish Atlantic World Trade, 1760-1820

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780804785426
eISBN:
9780804786355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804785426.003.0003
Subject:
History, Latin American History

This chapter presents a revisionist explanation for the Spanish flota (carrera de indias) universally depicted by historians as a monopolistic trade system that generated excessive profits to the ... More


Trade in War and Peace

Jeremy Baskes

in Staying Afloat: Risk and Uncertainty in Spanish Atlantic World Trade, 1760-1820

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
January 2014
ISBN:
9780804785426
eISBN:
9780804786355
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Stanford University Press
DOI:
10.11126/stanford/9780804785426.003.0006
Subject:
History, Latin American History

Chapter 6 explores the effects of war on Spanish transatlantic commerce, focusing especially on the American Revolutionary War and the wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon. War had profound ... More


1947

Arsenii Formakov

Emily D. Johnson (ed.)

in Gulag Letters

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
September 2017
ISBN:
9780300209310
eISBN:
9780300228199
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Yale University Press
DOI:
10.12987/yale/9780300209310.003.0005
Subject:
History, Russian and Former Soviet Union History

Formakov’s letters from 1947 focus on his preparations for his release, the introduction of the zachet system of time-off for good work, and also his concerns about his wife’s health and his family’s ... More


Root Causes

Michael Bérubé

in The Left at War

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780814799840
eISBN:
9780814739051
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
NYU Press
DOI:
10.18574/nyu/9780814799840.003.0002
Subject:
Society and Culture, Cultural Studies

This chapter explores the criticisms against Noam Chomsky. In the immediate aftermath of 9/11, Chomsky said a number of entirely true and useful things. He said that the attacks demonstrated the ... More


Ordnance

in Yellow Jack and the Worm: British Naval Administration in the West Indies, 1739-1748

Published in print:
1993
Published Online:
June 2013
ISBN:
9780853232674
eISBN:
9781846317361
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Liverpool University Press
DOI:
10.5949/UPO9781846317361.011
Subject:
History, Military History

This chapter focuses on the provision of ordnance stores in the Caribbean. The Board of Ordnance ensured that ships fitting for the West Indies had a full quota of guns and stores and, periodically, ... More


Why did plants become multicellular?

Anthony Trewavas

in Plant Behaviour and Intelligence

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2014
ISBN:
9780199539543
eISBN:
9780191788291
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539543.003.0005
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Most familiar plants are multicellular eukaryotes and the question arises as to how such a morphology and lifestyle evolved. The question is substantial because unicellular bacteria and unicellular ... More


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