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Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Gary A. Glatzmaier

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This book provides readers with the skills they need to write computer codes that simulate convection, internal gravity waves, and magnetic field generation in the interiors and atmospheres of ... More


A Model of Rayleigh-Bénard Convection

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter presents a model of Rayleigh–Bénard convection. It first describes the fundamental dynamics expected in a fluid that is convectively stable and in one that is convectively unstable, ... More


Numerical Method

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0002
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter describes a numerical method for solving equations of thermal convection on a computer. It begins by introducing the vorticity-streamfunction formulation as a means of conserving mass. ... More


Postprocessing

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0005
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter explains how to write a postprocessing code, and more specifically how to study the nonlinear simulations using computer graphics and analysis. It first considers how to compute and ... More


Internal Gravity Waves

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0006
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter focuses on internal gravity waves in a stable thermal stratification. When the amplitude of the fluid velocity is small relative to the amplitude of the phase velocity, a linear ... More


Double-Diffusive Convection

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses double-diffusive convection, with a particular focus on the initial instability and eventual nonlinear evolution. It first considers the “salt-fingering” instability and then ... More


Time Integration Schemes

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0008
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter focuses on time integration schemes, including fourth-order accurate Runge–Kutta and predictor-corrector schemes as well as schemes that allow larger time steps (and therefore fewer ... More


Spatial Discretizations

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0009
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter considers two ways of employing a spatial resolution that varies with position within a finite-difference method: using a nonuniform grid and mapping to a new coordinate variable. It ... More


Boundaries and Geometries

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0010
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter examines how boundary and geometry affect convection. It begins with a discussion of how one can implement “absorbing” top and bottom boundaries, which reduce the large-amplitude ... More


Magnetic Field

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0011
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter focuses on magnetoconvection, which refers to thermal convection of an electrically conducting fluid within a background magnetic field maintained by some external mechanism. It first ... More


Rotation

Gary A. Glatzmaier

in Introduction to Modeling Convection in Planets and Stars: Magnetic Field, Density Stratification, Rotation

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691141725
eISBN:
9781400848904
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691141725.003.0013
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter examines the effects of rotation on convection and gravity waves. Flows in the atmospheres, oceans, and liquid cores of terrestrial planets are dominated by the Coriolis forces, as are ... More


Metabolism and gas exchange

Steven L. Chown and Sue W. Nicolson

in Insect Physiological Ecology: Mechanisms and Patterns

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780198515494
eISBN:
9780191705649
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515494.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Animal Biology

Energy is a currency common to all animals, and the suite of responses shown by insects to the environments they inhabit is dependent on the metabolism of substrates. This chapter deals largely with ... More


Stellar Magnetism

Leon Mestel

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780198526728
eISBN:
9780191707049
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526728.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

Most stars appear to show some degree of magnetic activity. For example, the varying magnetic field of the Sun shows up in the familiar sun-spot cycle. Similar behaviour is observationally inferred ... More


Introduction: The Diversity of Planetary Climates

Andrew P. Ingersoll

in Planetary Climates

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145044
eISBN:
9781400848232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145044.003.0001
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This book examines the fundamental physical processes that control planetary climates, from convection and radiation to escape of atmospheres, evaporation, condensation, atmospheric chemistry, and ... More


Venus: Energy Transport and Winds

Andrew P. Ingersoll

in Planetary Climates

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145044
eISBN:
9781400848232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145044.003.0003
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter examines the modern-day climate of Venus, focusing on the role of winds in energy transfer. It first explains how radiation and convection influence the temperature structure of Venus's ... More


Saturn

Andrew P. Ingersoll

in Planetary Climates

Published in print:
2013
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691145044
eISBN:
9781400848232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691145044.003.0009
Subject:
Environmental Science, Climate

This chapter compares the climate of Saturn with that of Jupiter. Both Jupiter and Saturn have no oceans and no solid surfaces, but they have lightning storms and rain clouds that dwarf the largest ... More


Patterns in granular segregation

Igor S. Aranson and Lev S. Tsimring

in Granular Patterns

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
January 2009
ISBN:
9780199534418
eISBN:
9780191714665
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199534418.003.0007
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter contains an overview of experiments and theories on segregation occurring in heterogeneous granular materials. One of the most fascinating features of heterogeneous (i.e., consisting of ... More


Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics: Foundations and Applications

Phil Attard

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199662760
eISBN:
9780191745287
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199662760.001.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This book builds from basic principles to advanced techniques, and covers the major phenomena, methods, and results of time-dependent systems. The book treats time-dependent systems by close analogy ... More


Thermodynamics of irreversible processes

Kyösti Kontturi, Lasse Murtomäki, and José A. Manzanares

in Ionic Transport Processes: in Electrochemistry and Membrane Science

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199533817
eISBN:
9780191714825
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199533817.003.0001
Subject:
Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials

This chapter presents an introduction to thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The fundamental thermodynamic concepts required for studying the irreversible processes taking place in a moving ... More


Stars

Stephen J. Blundell and Katherine M. Blundell

in Concepts in Thermal Physics

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780199562091
eISBN:
9780191718236
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562091.003.0035
Subject:
Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter applies some of the concepts of thermal physics developed earlier in this book to stellar astrophysics. Astrophysics is the study of the physical properties of the Universe and the ... More


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