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Wind and Water: Abiotic Pollination

Pat Willmer

in Pollination and Floral Ecology

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
October 2017
ISBN:
9780691128610
eISBN:
9781400838943
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
DOI:
10.23943/princeton/9780691128610.003.0019
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter examines abiotic pollination via wind or water. It begins with a discussion of wind pollination or anemophily, which is a common occurrence in modern plants, especially in most ... More


Influences on Upland System Structure III: Conifers and Deciduous Shrubs

Frederic H. Wagner

in Yellowstone's Destabilized Ecosystem: Elk Effects, Science, and Policy Conflict

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195148213
eISBN:
9780199790449
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195148213.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

Historic and photographic evidence of the northern range shows the absence of browsing highlines on conifers in early park years (pre-1900), their general appearance by the early 1900s, and ... More


The World of Northern Evergreens

E. C. Pielou

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801477409
eISBN:
9780801463037
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801477409.001.0001
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Global warming and human-driven impacts from logging, natural gas drilling, mining of oil sands, and the development of hydropower increasingly threaten North America's northern forests. These ... More


The Big Picture

E. C. Pielou

in The World of Northern Evergreens

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801477409
eISBN:
9780801463037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801477409.003.0012
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter maps the geographic extent of the ecosystems created by conifers, and coincidentally the areas of dominance of one or more identifying conifer species. The result is a mosaic of ... More


Southern California Conifer Forests

Richard A. Minnich

in Terrestrial Vegetation of California, 3rd Edition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520249554
eISBN:
9780520933361
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520249554.003.0018
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter focuses on the distribution and species composition of conifer forests in Southern California. Conifers make up most forests and woodlands of Southern California. These coniferous ... More


Identifying the Conifers

E. C. Pielou

in The World of Northern Evergreens

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801477409
eISBN:
9780801463037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801477409.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

The chapter considers the various groups of conifers and how they can be told apart. It begins with some brief remarks about the naming of plants. The English names of the various groups of conifers ... More


Closed-Cone Pine and Cypress Forests

Michael G. Barbour

in Terrestrial Vegetation of California, 3rd Edition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520249554
eISBN:
9780520933361
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520249554.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Serotinus conifers have mature cones that remain closed and attached to the parent tree for 1 or more years after seed maturation; cones open rapidly when removed from the tree or when exposed to ... More


Origin of the Evergreen Forests

E. C. Pielou

in The World of Northern Evergreens

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801477409
eISBN:
9780801463037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801477409.003.0001
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter addresses two questions that have engaged the interests of ecologists and motivated years of research: Where has the forest come from? And why are the great majority of its trees ... More


Reproduction of Conifers

E. C. Pielou

in The World of Northern Evergreens

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801477409
eISBN:
9780801463037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801477409.003.0003
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter discusses the reproduction of conifers. For conifers, pollination involves the transfer of pollen grains from a pollen cone to a seed cone, where they will fertilize the ovules (seeds ... More


The Life and Growth of a Conifer

E. C. Pielou

in The World of Northern Evergreens

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801477409
eISBN:
9780801463037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801477409.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter begins by describing the differences in conifer and broadleaf wood. In all trees, the trunk and branches contain tubes to carry liquids up and down the tree, from roots to leaves and ... More


Two Kinds of Trees: Conifers and Broadleafs

E. C. Pielou

in The World of Northern Evergreens

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801477409
eISBN:
9780801463037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801477409.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter considers the contrast between the two kinds of tree. Not all conifers are evergreen, and not all broadleafs are deciduous. The differences between them are profound, so much so that it ... More


Parasites on the Conifers

E. C. Pielou

in The World of Northern Evergreens

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801477409
eISBN:
9780801463037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801477409.003.0008
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter discusses the wood-destroying fungi that cause wood to rot, decompose, or decay. These fungi are vital in the maintenance of living, growing forests. Without them, dead woody debris, ... More


Some Mammals and Birds of the Forest

E. C. Pielou

in The World of Northern Evergreens

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801477409
eISBN:
9780801463037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801477409.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter considers the mammals and birds in coniferous forests, including shrews, mice squirrels, rodents, moose, elks, deers, foxes, bears, and crossbills. All warm-blooded animals need food and ... More


Natural and Unnatural Interference

E. C. Pielou

in The World of Northern Evergreens

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
August 2016
ISBN:
9780801477409
eISBN:
9780801463037
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Cornell University Press
DOI:
10.7591/cornell/9780801477409.003.0011
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

This chapter focuses on the interactions between coniferous trees and nonliving things: fires, snow and wind, air pollution and acid rain, and logging. Fire is essential to forest renewal. Like ... More


Forests of Northwestern California

John O. Sawyer

in Terrestrial Vegetation of California, 3rd Edition

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520249554
eISBN:
9780520933361
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520249554.003.0010
Subject:
Biology, Plant Sciences and Forestry

Northwestern California has amassed its diverse flora over a long period of time, and from many sources. This chapter focuses on the classification and ecological dynamics of Northwestern forests. ... More


A Rose by Any Name

James K. Agee

in Steward's Fork: A Sustainable Future for the Klamath Mountains

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520251250
eISBN:
9780520933798
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520251250.003.0004
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter describes the rich diversity of plant life in the Klamath Mountains, which contain the richest conifer diversity in the world and a number of rare or endemic plant species. The Klamaths ... More


Wildland Fire in the West: The Big Picture

Sara E. Jensen and Guy R. McPherson

in Living with Fire: Fire Ecology and Policy for the Twenty-first Century

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780520255890
eISBN:
9780520942516
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520255890.003.0002
Subject:
Biology, Ecology

This chapter focuses on the current scientific understanding of wildland fire. It discusses the occurrence, spread and behavior of fires, the factors that influence wildland fires, and native species ... More


Conifers

Kristina A. Schierenbeck

in Phylogeography of California

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
January 2015
ISBN:
9780520278875
eISBN:
9780520959248
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:
10.1525/california/9780520278875.003.0005
Subject:
Environmental Science, Nature

Conifers arose in the Carboniferous, when Pangaea was still forming, and fossil evidence supports their once widespread distribution. As tectonic activity continued throughout the Mesozoic and ... More


CHANGING OLD FORESTS AT THE MOUTH OF THE COLUMBIA

Daniel B. Botkin

in Beyond the Stony Mountains: Following in the Footsteps of Lewis and Clark

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195162431
eISBN:
9780199790043
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Discontinued
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195162431.003.0013
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This chapter has Lewis and Clark arrive at the mouth of the Columbia River in early December 1805. Lewis and Clark organized the men and built a wooden fort here at a site that was south of the ... More


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