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Making Sense of Data: A Self-Instruction Manual on the Interpretation of Epidemiological Data

J. H. Abramson and Z. H. Abramson

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195145250
eISBN:
9780199864775
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195145250.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book on the use of epidemiologic data deals with the basic concepts and skills needed for the appraisal of published reports or one's own findings. Applications in clinical medicine, public ... More


Conclusions and perspectives

Franck Courchamp, Luděk Berec, and Joanna Gascoigne

in Allee Effects in Ecology and Conservation

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780198570301
eISBN:
9780191717642
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198570301.003.0006
Subject:
Biology, Biodiversity / Conservation Biology

This closing chapter first recapitulates the main notions and information seen in this book, then discusses the main problems related to the definition and to the demonstration of Allee effects; for ... More


Designing the Randomized Controlled Trial

Phyllis Solomon, Mary M. Cavanaugh, and Jeffrey Draine

in Randomized Controlled Trials: Design and Implementation for Community-Based Psychosocial Interventions

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195333190
eISBN:
9780199864317
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195333190.003.0005
Subject:
Social Work, Research and Evaluation

The research design operationalizes the elements of an RCT and places it within the social context for the study. Building on a strong conceptualization and what is known about the service setting, ... More


Important concepts in epidemiology

Olli S. Miettinen

in Teaching Epidemiology: A guide for teachers in epidemiology, public health and clinical medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199239481
eISBN:
9780191716973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239481.003.002
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses important concepts in epidemiology, together with their English-language terms. Topics covered include the essence of epidemiology, meta-epidemiology for clinical medicine, ... More


Environment

Anders Ahlbom

in Teaching Epidemiology: A guide for teachers in epidemiology, public health and clinical medicine

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780199239481
eISBN:
9780191716973
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239481.003.007
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses, from the teacher's perspective, some methodologic aspects that are of particular importance in the application of epidemiology to environmental health problems. Many of those ... More


Causal Inference: A Thought Experiment

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.11
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

A cohort study is always a kind of ‘thought experiment’. One needs to imagine what results ‘would have been’ if the exposed and the unexposed groups had in fact been fully comparable. This chapter ... More


Comparability and the Case-Control Study

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.18
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The validity of a case-control study depends upon sampling controls from the noncases in an unbiased way, that is, independent of exposure status. Although this safeguard will prevent introducing ... More


Adjustment for Covariates

Ezra Susser, Sharon Schwartz, Alfredo Morabia, and Evelyn J. Bromet

in Psychiatric Epidemiology: Searching for the Causes of Mental Disorders

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195101812
eISBN:
9780199864096
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195101812.003.25
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter introduces methods of statistical adjustment. Statistical adjustment is used to reduce the effects of confounders; or, more precisely, to infer what association would have been observed ... More


Introduction

Alan S. Brown and Paul H. Patterson

in The Origins of Schizophrenia

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231151245
eISBN:
9780231521925
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231151245.003.0016
Subject:
Psychology, Health Psychology

This chapter provides several domains of research supporting the theory that the origins of schizophrenia encompass both environmental and genetic factors. First, many new findings on potential ... More


Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Strategies for Study Design & Analysis

David A. Savitz

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195108408
eISBN:
9780199865765
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195108408.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book offers a strategy for assessing epidemiologic research findings. Specific tools for assessing the presence and impact of selection bias in both cohort and case-control studies, bias from ... More


Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Mark Elwood

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.001.0001
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This book presents a logical system of critical appraisal, and facilitates studies to be evaluated and carried out effectively. This system emphasizes the central importance of cause and effect ... More


Designing Population Health Studies

T. Kue Young

in Population Health: Concepts and Methods

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195158540
eISBN:
9780199864379
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195158540.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter reviews the different research designs in epidemiology and public health; distinguishes levels of measurement, validity and reliability, error and bias, types of confounding, effect ... More


Bias and confounding in spatial epidemiology

P. Elliott and J. C. Wakefield

in Spatial Epidemiology: Methods and Applications

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198515326
eISBN:
9780191723667
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198515326.003.0005
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter addresses some of the issues affecting the interpretation of spatial epidemiological studies. It separates the two concepts of bias and confounding. In general, bias and confounding are ... More


Confounding

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.06
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Confounding is the most challenging issue in the interpretation of studies. This chapter is divided into three parts. The first part defines confounding and shows what effects it can produce. The ... More


Critical appraisal of a matched case–control study

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.14
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: a small matched case-control study entitled ‘Increased risk of endometrial carcinoma among users of ... More


Critical appraisal of a large population-based case–control study

J. Mark Elwood

in Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780198529552
eISBN:
9780191723865
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.003.15
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: large population-based case-control study entitled ‘Risk of breast cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol ... More


Analysis of Case-Control Data

Gayane Yenokyan

in The Case-Control Method: Design and Applications

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780195187113
eISBN:
9780199864898
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195187113.003.0006
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Following a presentation of the main steps in the analysis of case-control data starting with editing and cleaning data and selecting continuous predictors, this chapter discusses some of the ... More


13. Cross-sectional studies

Janet E. Cade

in Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192627391
eISBN:
9780191723704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192627391.003.0013
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Cross-sectional studies involve identifying a defined population at a given point in time and measuring a range of variables on an individual basis which can include current and past dietary ... More


14. Cohort studies

Michael L. Burr

in Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192627391
eISBN:
9780191723704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192627391.003.0014
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Cohort studies follow a group of individuals over time to identify changes in status (such as disease or mortality) and relate these to observations made at baseline. They can also be carried out ... More


15. Case-control studies

Hazel Inskip and David Coggon

in Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
September 2009
ISBN:
9780192627391
eISBN:
9780191723704
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192627391.003.0015
Subject:
Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Case-control (or case-referent) studies compare patients with a disease or health outcome of interest (a case) with controls who do not have the disease or outcome. Their relevant past exposures are ... More


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