## Methodologies for root selection

*Christopher G. Small and Jinfang Wang*

### in Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Estimating Equations

- Published in print:
- 2003
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198506881
- eISBN:
- 9780191709258
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198506881.003.0005
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Probability / Statistics

This chapter studies the specific problem of selecting a root of an estimating equation with more than one root, for instance, using methods by removing the irregularity of the estimating function or ... More

## Determining Sample Size: Balancing Power, Precision, and Practicality

*Patrick Dattalo*

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- January 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195315493
- eISBN:
- 9780199865475
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315493.001.0001
- Subject:
- Social Work, Research and Evaluation

Sample size determination is an important and often difficult step in planning an empirical study. From a statistical perspective, sample size depends on the following factors: type of analysis to be ... More

## Random Error

*David A. Savitz*

### in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Strategies for Study Design & Analysis

- Published in print:
- 2003
- Published Online:
- September 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195108408
- eISBN:
- 9780199865765
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195108408.003.0010
- Subject:
- Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

This chapter discusses random error. Topics covered include taking a sequential approach to considering random and systematic error, special considerations in evaluating random error in observational ... More

## Statistics used in observational studies

*Will G. Hopkins*

### in Sports Injury Research

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780199561629
- eISBN:
- 9780191722479
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561629.003.06
- Subject:
- Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

A variety of ways to express the incidence and prevalence of sports injury exists, of which the number of injuries per 1,000 hours of play is the most commonly used. There is no clear answer as to ... More

## Sampling and Measurement

*Peter Lyons and Howard J. Doueck*

### in The Dissertation: From Beginning to End

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780195373912
- eISBN:
- 9780199865604
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373912.003.0005
- Subject:
- Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter examines participant selection, sampling design, sample size and sampling error; as well as the importance of statistical power, effect size, confidence levels, and confidence intervals. ... More

## Basic statistical methods

*Jos Twisk*

### in Sports Injury Research

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780199561629
- eISBN:
- 9780191722479
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199561629.003.03
- Subject:
- Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Before one can understand and apply the statistical methods that are being used most commonly in sports injury research, an introduction on general statistical principles is needed. This chapter ... More

## Confidence Intervals: Measures of Precision

*Patrick Dattalo*

### in Determining Sample Size: Balancing Power, Precision, and Practicality

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- January 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195315493
- eISBN:
- 9780199865475
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315493.003.0003
- Subject:
- Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter provides a brief description of the rationale and limitations of CIs; presents important issues related to calculating CIs for both commonly used and emerging statistical procedures in ... More

## Rates and Other Measures

*J. H. Abramson and Z. H. Abramson*

### in Making Sense of Data: A Self-Instruction Manual on the Interpretation of Epidemiological Data

- Published in print:
- 2001
- Published Online:
- September 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195145250
- eISBN:
- 9780199864775
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195145250.003.0002
- Subject:
- Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

The exercises in this section deal with various kinds of rates, and other simple summary measures used in epidemiological studies. The main topics include how the measures are calculated, the ... More

## Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Tests

### in Introductory Econometrics: Intuition, Proof, and Practice

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- June 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780804772624
- eISBN:
- 9780804777209
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Stanford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.11126/stanford/9780804772624.003.0006
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter discusses confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. Confidence intervals provide ranges that contain the parameters with prespecified degrees of certainty. Hypothesis tests evaluate ... More

## Inference in Ordinary Least Squares

### in Introductory Econometrics: Intuition, Proof, and Practice

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- June 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780804772624
- eISBN:
- 9780804777209
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Stanford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.11126/stanford/9780804772624.003.0007
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Econometrics

This chapter discusses how to accurately estimate the values of β and α from b and a. Regression produces an estimate of the standard deviation of εi. This, in turn, serves as the basis for estimates ... More

## Confidence Intervals

*Dale W. Jorgenson, Richard J. Goettle, Mun S. Ho, and Peter J. Wilcoxen*

### in Double Dividend: Environmental Taxes and Fiscal Reform in the United States

- Published in print:
- 2014
- Published Online:
- September 2014
- ISBN:
- 9780262027090
- eISBN:
- 9780262318563
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- The MIT Press
- DOI:
- 10.7551/mitpress/9780262027090.003.0009
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter describes a method for constructing confidence intervals for general equilibrium model results using the covariance matrices routinely computed in the course of estimating the model's ... More

## Statistical treatment

*Thomas D. Wickens*

### in Elementary Signal Detection Theory

- Published in print:
- 2001
- Published Online:
- April 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780195092509
- eISBN:
- 9780199893812
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195092509.003.0011
- Subject:
- Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter collects several issues concerned with the statistical treatment of signal-detection data: variability of the parameter estimates (confidence intervals and hypothesis tests), measuring ... More

## Summary and Conclusions

*Patrick Dattalo*

### in Strategies to Approximate Random Sampling and Assignment

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- February 2010
- ISBN:
- 9780195378351
- eISBN:
- 9780199864645
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195378351.003.0006
- Subject:
- Social Work, Research and Evaluation

In this chapter, specific recommendations made in chapters one through five are summarized. In conclusion, it is argued that, more generally, and in the longer term, alternatives and supplements to ... More

## Effect Size Metrics and Pooling Methods

*Julia H. Littell, Jacqueline Corcoran, and Vijayan Pillai*

### in Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- January 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195326543
- eISBN:
- 9780199864959
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195326543.003.0005
- Subject:
- Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter covers the meanings and measures of effect size (ES), focusing on common effect size measures. Confidence intervals are used to capture the precision of ES estimates. Corrections for ... More

## Regression with a Dichotomous Dependent Variable Regression with a Dichotomous Dependent Variable

*John G. Orme and Terri Combs-Orme*

### in Multiple Regression with Discrete Dependent Variables

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- May 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195329452
- eISBN:
- 9780199864812
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195329452.003.0002
- Subject:
- Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter describes the use of binary logistic regression (also known simply as logistic or logit regression), a versatile and popular method for modeling relationships between a dichotomous ... More

## General Requirements for Casimir Force Measurements

*M. Bordag, G. L. Klimchitskaya, U. Mohideen, and V. M. Mostepanenko*

### in Advances in the Casimir Effect

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- September 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780199238743
- eISBN:
- 9780191716461
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238743.003.0018
- Subject:
- Physics, Condensed Matter Physics / Materials, Atomic, Laser, and Optical Physics

Given that the Casimir force is very small and has a strong dependence on the separation distance and on the geometrical and material properties of the boundary surfaces, the measurement of this ... More

## Local Regression and Likelihood

*Partha P. Mitra and Hemant Bokil*

### in Observed Brain Dynamics

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- May 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195178081
- eISBN:
- 9780199864829
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195178081.003.0013
- Subject:
- Neuroscience, Techniques, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Local regression and likelihood methods are nonparametric approaches for fitting regression functions and probability distributions to data. This chapter discusses the basic ideas behind these ... More

## Basic Terms and Concepts

*Patrick Dattalo*

### in Determining Sample Size: Balancing Power, Precision, and Practicality

- Published in print:
- 2008
- Published Online:
- January 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780195315493
- eISBN:
- 9780199865475
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315493.003.0001
- Subject:
- Social Work, Research and Evaluation

This chapter defines important terms and concepts. It a familiarity with issues related to the appropriate application of each statistical procedure in terms of assumptions and purpose. The chapter ... More

## Inductive Entailment

*Jon Williamson*

### in Lectures on Inductive Logic

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- March 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780199666478
- eISBN:
- 9780191749292
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199666478.003.0007
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

Chapter 7 explains how objective Bayesian inductive logic captures inductive entailment. This is done by means of an extended example. The ability of the logic to capture inductive entailment is ... More

## Random Error

*David A. Savitz and Gregory A. Wellenius*

### in Interpreting Epidemiologic Evidence: Connecting Research to Applications

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- November 2016
- ISBN:
- 9780190243777
- eISBN:
- 9780190243807
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190243777.003.0012
- Subject:
- Public Health and Epidemiology, Public Health, Epidemiology

Random error refers to the non-systematic reasons that estimated values deviate from the correct values. The processes that give rise to random error, either sampling or allocation across treatments, ... More