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Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Peter M. Todd, Thomas T. Hills, and Trevor W. Robbins (eds)

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
book
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.001.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Over a century ago, William James proposed that people search through memory much as they rummage through a house looking for lost keys. Like other animal species search space, we scour our ... More


Search, Goals, and the Brain

Catharine A. Winstanley, Trevor W. Robbins, Bernard W. Balleine, Joshua W. Brown, Christian Büchel, Roshan Cools, Daniel Durstewitz, John P. O’Doherty, Cyriel M. A. Pennartz, A. David Redish, and Jeremy K. Seamans

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0009
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

The process of cognitive search invokes a purposeful and iterative process by which an organism considers information of a potentially diverse nature and selects a particular option that best matches ... More


Unpacking Cognitive Search: Mechanisms and Processes

Thorsten Pachur, Jeroen G. W. Raaijmakers, Eddy J. Davelaar, Nathaniel D. Daw, Michael R. Dougherty, Bernhard Hommel, Michael D. Lee, Sean M. Polyn, K. Richard Ridderinkhof, Peter M. Todd, and Jeremy M. Wolfe

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0015
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

This chapter discusses commonalities and differences in the cognitive mechanisms underlying different search tasks, such as spatial search, visual search, memory retrieval, action search, problem ... More


Convergent and Divergent Operations in Cognitive Search

Bernhard Hommel

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0014
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Human goal-directed action emerges from the interaction between stimulus-driven sensorimotor online systems and slower-working control systems that relate highly processed perceptual information to ... More


From Plato to the World Wide Web: Information Foraging on the Internet

Wai-Tat Fu

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0018
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Generally speaking, two conditions make cognitive search possible: (a) symbolic structures must be present in the environment and (b) these structures must be detectable by a searcher, whose behavior ... More


Building a Foundation for Cognitive Search

Peter M. Todd, Thomas T. Hills, and Trevor W. Robbins

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0001
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Search is a common and crucial behavior for most organisms. It requires individuals to achieve an adaptive trade-off between exploration for new resources distributed in space or time and ... More


Executive Control of Cognitive Search

Joshua W. Brown and Derek E. Nee

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0005
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

At a basic level, cognitive search involves several parameters: Under what circumstances should a search be initiated, and how should the goal be specified? What are the criteria by which the search ... More


The Evolution of Cognitive Search

Thomas T. Hills and Reuven Dukas

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0002
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Search can be defined as an attempt to arrive at a goal at an unknown location in the physical environment, as well as in time, memory, or any other space. Search is necessary because the quantity ... More


Searching for Fundamentals and Commonalities of Search

John M. C. Hutchinson, David W. Stephens, Melissa Bateson, Iain Couzin, Reuven Dukas, Luc-Alain Giraldeau, Thomas T. Hills, Frederic Méry, and Bruce Winterhalder

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0004
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

This chapter reports the discussion of a group of mostly behavioral biologists, who attempt to put research on search from their own discipline into a framework that might help identify parallels ... More


Problem Solving and Search in Networks

David Lazer and Ethan S. Bernstein

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0017
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

This chapter examines the role that networks play in facilitating or inhibiting search for solutions to problems at both the individual and collective levels. At the individual level, search in ... More


Optimal Strategies and Heuristics for Ecological Search Problems

John M. McNamara and Tim W. Fawcett

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0019
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

All animals, including humans, search for a variety of different things in their natural environment, from food to mates to a suitable place to live. Most types of search can be represented as ... More


Human Memory Search

Eddy J. Davelaar and Jeroen G. W. Raaijmakers

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0011
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what we remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with ... More


Chemical Neuromodulation of Goal-Directed Behavior

Roshan Cools

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0008
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Directing our behavior adequately to current goals requires a trade-off between cognitive flexibility and cognitive stability. In this chapter, empirical data and theories are reviewed which show ... More


Cognitive Control, Cognitive Search, and Motivational Salience: A Systems Neuroscience Approach

K. Richard Ridderinkhof and Helga A. Harsay

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0013
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

An essential facet of adaptive and versatile behavior is the ability to prioritize actions in response to dynamically changing circumstances, in particular when circumstances require the coordination ... More


Model-Based Reinforcement Learning as Cognitive Search: Neurocomputational Theories

Nathaniel D. Daw

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0012
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

One oft-envisioned function of search is planning actions (e.g., by exploring routes through a cognitive map). Yet, among the most prominent and quantitatively successful neuroscentific theories of ... More


Search Processes and Hippocampus

A. David Redish

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0006
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Deliberation entails the sequential, serial search through possible options. This means that deliberation requires a mechanism to represent the structure of the world, from which predictions can be ... More


Ecological and Behavioral Approaches to Search Behavior

David W. Stephens, Iain Couzin, and Luc-Alain Giraldeau

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0003
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

This chapter offers a selective review of behavioral and ecological perspectives on search behavior. Basic results from foraging theory are presented and their relationship to search is discussed. ... More


Visual Search

Jeremy M. Wolfe

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0010
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

This chapter considers the range of visual search tasks, from those involving very briefly presented stimuli to those involving search processes that extend over many days. Most of the discussion ... More


Foundations of Search: A Perspective from Computer Science

James A. R. Marshall and Frank Neumann

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0016
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Since Alan Turing, computer scientists have been interested in understanding natural intelligence by reproducing it in machine form. The field of artificial intelligence is characterized, to a large ... More


Neural Bases of Actions and Habits

John P. O’Doherty and Bernard W. Balleine

in Cognitive Search: Evolution, Algorithms, and the Brain

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2016
ISBN:
9780262018098
eISBN:
9780262306003
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:
10.7551/mitpress/9780262018098.003.0007
Subject:
Sociology, Social Psychology and Interaction

Considerable evidence suggests that the behavioral mechanisms for instrumental action selection are mediated by two distinct learning processes: a goal-directed process whereby actions are selected ... More


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