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In Search of Madness: Schizophrenia and Neuroscience

R. Walter Heinrichs

Published in print:
2001
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195122190
eISBN:
9780199865482
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195122190.001.0001
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience

This book evaluates the progress of schizophrenia science by summarizing what is known about how patients with the illness differ from healthy people. The tools of meta-analysis are first explained ... More


Practical Consequences and Potential Interventions

Timothy A. Salthouse

in Major Issues in Cognitive Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195372151
eISBN:
9780199776948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372151.003.0006
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

Assuming that the phenomena described in earlier chapters are accepted as robust and valid, two questions are often asked: (1) Why are there not greater consequences of these cognitive declines in ... More


Normal and Pathological Cognitive Aging in Late Adulthood

Timothy A. Salthouse

in Major Issues in Cognitive Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195372151
eISBN:
9780199776948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372151.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter focuses on cognitive functioning in late adulthood. It discusses three related topics: dementia, the preclinical phase of dementia, and the risk factors for cognitive decline and ... More


Neurochemical Modulation of Prefrontal Cortical Function in Humans and Animals

Amy F.T. Arnsten and Trevor W. Robbins

in Principles of Frontal Lobe Function

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195134971
eISBN:
9780199864157
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195134971.003.0004
Subject:
Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

The cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which include use of working memory to guide behavioral responses and the contents of attentional focus, the inhibition of inappropriate ... More


Within-Person and Across-Time Comparisons

Timothy A. Salthouse

in Major Issues in Cognitive Aging

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195372151
eISBN:
9780199776948
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195372151.003.0002
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Psychology

One of the important questions in the field of cognitive aging is what is responsible for the different age relations found in cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of cognitive functioning. ... More


Deaf Cognition: Foundations and Outcomes

Marc Marschark and Peter C Hauser (eds)

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780195368673
eISBN:
9780199894161
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195368673.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This book examines the cognitive underpinnings of deaf individuals' learning. The book is written by scientists from different disciplines, which rarely interact in other realms. In this book they ... More


Making Brain Paths to Agile Thinking, Part 1: Correlational and Longitudinal Evidence

Wilma Koutstaal

in The Agile Mind

Published in print:
2011
Published Online:
January 2012
ISBN:
9780195367188
eISBN:
9780199918232
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367188.003.0061
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

Our day-to-day environment is a crucial but not always sufficiently recognized sculptor of our brains and of our ability to use agile thinking. The things we see, hear, imagine, and plan each day, ... More


Genetic Dissection of Dopamine-Mediated Prefrontal-Striatal Mechanisms and Its Relationship to Schizophrenia

Hao-Yang Tan and Daniel R. Weinberger

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0013
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

This chapter examines findings through which heritable human neuroimaging intermediate phenotypes could provide a window to examine genetic mechanisms of active prefrontal cognitive processing ... More


Neurocomputational Analysis of Dopamine Function

Daniel Durstewitz

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0018
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

Current computational models of dopamine (DA) modulation have worked either from a more abstract neuroalgorithmic level, starting with specific assumptions about DA's computational role and then ... More


Dopamine’s Influence on Prefrontal Cortical Cognition: Actions and Circuits in Behaving Primates

Amy F.T. Arnsten, Susheel Vijayraghavan, Min Wang, Nao J. Gamo, and Constantinos D. Paspalas

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0016
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

This chapter summarizes current knowledge of dopamine (DA) and DA receptor localization in primate prefrontal cortex (PFC), and the powerful influences of DA on PFC physiology and cognitive function. ... More


Androgen, Estrogen, and Cognition

Melissa Hines

in Brain Gender

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
May 2009
ISBN:
9780195188363
eISBN:
9780199865246
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195188363.003.0009
Subject:
Neuroscience, Neuroendocrine and Autonomic, Development

This chapter discusses sex differences in human cognitive function. Topics discussed include the impact of androgen on intelligence, influence of gonadal hormones on human cognitive development, ... More


Contributions of Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine to Cognition and Executive Function

Stan B. Floresco

in Dopamine Handbook

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195373035
eISBN:
9780199865543
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373035.003.0015
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems, History of Neuroscience

This chapter presents a summary of studies that have investigated the contribution of prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine (DA) transmission to higher-order cognition, and compares and contrasts the ... More


 The Roles of Hippocampal Subfields in Processing Spatial Contexts of Events: Neurophysiological and Behavioral Analyses

Inah Lee, Raymond P. Kesner, and James J. Knierim

in Hippocampal Place Fields: Relevance to Learning and Memory

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195323245
eISBN:
9780199869268
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195323245.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience

This chapter seeks to establish the link, based on experimental evidence, between some of the key computational principles of the hippocampal subfields and their cognitive functions for episodic ... More


Lifestyle Variables That Affect Intellectual Functioning

K. Warner Schaie

in Developmental Influences on Adult Intelligence: The Seattle longitudinal study

Published in print:
2005
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195156737
eISBN:
9780199786817
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156737.003.0011
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

The Life Complexity Inventory (LCI) has been used since 1974 to characterize the microenvironment of participants in the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Early analyses of this instrument identified eight ... More


Conclusion: Future Directions for the New Science

Peter Politser

in Neuroeconomics: A guide to the new science of making choices

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780195305821
eISBN:
9780199867783
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195305821.003.0005
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

This chapter begins with a review of the topics discussed in the preceding chapters. It then discusses the need to “remodel” ideas about the sources of choice and the lack of a systematic framework ... More


Neuropsychological Foundations of Human Personality and Luria’s Legacy

George P. Prigatano

in Luria's Legacy in the 21st Century

Published in print:
2009
Published Online:
February 2010
ISBN:
9780195176704
eISBN:
9780199864706
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195176704.003.0005
Subject:
Neuroscience, History of Neuroscience

Successful neuropsychological rehabilitation is in part determined by the patient’s personality, as Luria noted in his earlier writings. While Luria has presented a comprehensive theory of higher ... More


Sex Differences in Cognitive Function in Rodents

Victoria Luine and Gary Dohanich

in Sex Differences in the Brain: From Genes to Behavior

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2010
ISBN:
9780195311587
eISBN:
9780199865048
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311587.003.0012
Subject:
Neuroscience, Molecular and Cellular Systems

Qualitative sexual dimorphisms in cognition and behavior may afford each sex with the requisite tools that provide an edge for their mutual survival and for the survival of their progeny. This ... More


The Aesthetic Faculty

Terrence Deacon

in The Artful Mind: Cognitive Science and the Riddle of Human Creativity

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780195306361
eISBN:
9780199851034
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306361.003.0002
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind

This chapter offers an overview of the cognitive principles of art, the origins of art, and the cognitive function of art. Art is an activity that arises in the context of human cultural and ... More


Varieties of Attention in Infancy

John Colombo, Leah Kapa, and Lori Curtindale

in Infant Perception and Cognition: Recent Advances, Emerging Theories, and Future Directions

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
January 2011
ISBN:
9780195366709
eISBN:
9780199863969
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195366709.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Vision

This chapter summarizes over twenty years of research on the development of attention in human infants. It begins by briefly tracing the history of consideration of attention as a construct in the ... More


The Prefrontal Cortex: Executive and Cognitive Functions

A. C. Roberts, T. W. Robbins, and L. Weiskrantz (eds)

Published in print:
1998
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780198524410
eISBN:
9780191689192
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524410.001.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology

The role of the prefrontal cortex is one of the most topical and important areas of research in contemporary neuropsychology. This cortical region appears to be linked with executive processes ... More


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