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Social Justice and Public Equality

Thomas Christiano

in The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and Its Limits

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780198297475
eISBN:
9780191716867
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198297475.003.0003
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics, Political Theory

This chapter argues that social justice requires that equality be publicly realized. Social justice is realized in social and political institutions that attempt to establish justice. It requires ... More


COGNITIVE BIAS MODIFICATION: THE EFFECTS OF TRAINING PARADIGMS

Jenna G. Suway and Nathan A. Fox

in Cognitive Neuroscience, Development, and Psychopathology: Typical and Atypical Developmental Trajectories of Attention

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
September 2012
ISBN:
9780195315455
eISBN:
9780199979066
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315455.003.0003
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Developmental Psychology

Biased social information processing is thought to underlie the development and maintenance of anxiety and depression. Two such biases that have been frequently linked to anxiety and depression are ... More


Rethinking Cognitive Biases as Environmental Consequences

Gerd Gigerenzer, Klaus Fiedler, and Henrik Olsson

in Ecological Rationality: Intelligence in the World

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
May 2012
ISBN:
9780195315448
eISBN:
9780199932429
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0025
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Human-Technology Interaction

Cognitive processes and their adaptive functions can hardly be understood if we look exclusively inside the mind, such as when we try to explain behavior with traits, attitudes, or preferences. ... More


Cognitive Functioning in Depression: Nature and Origins

Ian H. Gotlib, Eva Gilboa, and Beth Kaplan Sommerfeld

in Anxiety, Depression, and Emotion

Published in print:
2000
Published Online:
March 2012
ISBN:
9780195133585
eISBN:
9780199847310
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195133585.003.0007
Subject:
Psychology, Clinical Psychology

This chapter explores the psychiatric disorder of depression and the opening section provides relevant statistics and a brief history of related research on depression. This chapter focuses on ... More


Rational People and Religion

Witham Larry

in Marketplace of the Gods: How Economics Explains Religion

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195394757
eISBN:
9780199777372
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195394757.003.0002
Subject:
Religion, Religion and Society

Economics and cognitive psychology have long debated the nature of human rationality. One says humans have a capacity for rational calculation, while the other points to “cognitive bias” in people’s ... More


The Memory of Jurors: Enhancing Trial Performance

Anders Sandberg, Walter P. Sinnott-Armstrong, and Julian Savulescu

in Memory and Law

Published in print:
2012
Published Online:
January 2013
ISBN:
9780199920754
eISBN:
9780199950133
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199920754.003.0009
Subject:
Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Forensic Psychology

Cognitive performance of the participants has crucial significance for legal trials, sometimes making the difference between fair and unfair verdicts. Jury members are expected to passively listen to ... More


Decision Making Processes and the Rate and Direction of Innovation *

David J. Teece

in Managing Intellectual Capital: Organizational, Strategic, and Policy Dimensions

Published in print:
2002
Published Online:
November 2003
ISBN:
9780198295426
eISBN:
9780191596964
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198295421.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

The reluctance to introduce competency‐destroying innovations may be understood as a product of the decision‐making biases of many large firms; some large firms tend to lose their ability and desire ... More


Introduction

Susan A. Gelman

in The Essential Child: Origins of Essentialism in Everyday Thought

Published in print:
2003
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195154061
eISBN:
9780199786718
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195154061.003.0001
Subject:
Psychology, Developmental Psychology

This introduction concerns essentialism in everyday thought. Roughly, essentialism is the view that categories have an underlying reality or true nature that one cannot observe directly but that ... More


Every Jury Trial Is a Bench Trial: Judicial Engineering of Jury Disputes

C. K. Rowland, Tina Traficanti, and Erin Vernon

in The Psychology of Judicial Decision Making

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195367584
eISBN:
9780199776917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367584.003.0012
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

For decades virtually every scholarly work on trial judges began by lamenting the unfortunate tendency of students of judicial behavior to concentrate almost exclusively on appellate courts generally ... More


Features of Judicial Reasoning

Emily Sherwin

in The Psychology of Judicial Decision Making

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195367584
eISBN:
9780199776917
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195367584.003.0008
Subject:
Psychology, Forensic Psychology

Judges confront rules in two ways, as rule-makers and as rule-followers. When a judge decides a case that is not governed by an existing rule, the judge must formulate a rule of decision and ... More


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