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International Remedial Action

Alfred Maizels, Robert Bacon, and George Mavrotas

in COMMODITY SUPPLY MANAGEMENT BY PRODUCING COUNTRIES: A Case-Study of the Tropical Beverage Crops

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198233381
eISBN:
9780191678981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198233381.003.0004
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

Until the 1970s ended, countries engaged in negotiating agreements with economic provisions. These were intended for providing a framework for negotiated particular price objectives especially for ... More


The World Cocoa Market

Alfred Maizels, Robert Bacon, and George Mavrotas

in COMMODITY SUPPLY MANAGEMENT BY PRODUCING COUNTRIES: A Case-Study of the Tropical Beverage Crops

Published in print:
1997
Published Online:
October 2011
ISBN:
9780198233381
eISBN:
9780191678981
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198233381.003.0008
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

The demand for cocoa is derived from the demand for the final products cocoa is used in. Cocoa relies on the production of chocolate, as chocolate is further used in a wide variety of products and is ... More


Commodity Value Chains Compression—Coffee, Cocoa, and Sugar

Jaya Choraria

in Commodity Prices and Development

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
January 2008
ISBN:
9780199234707
eISBN:
9780191715488
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199234707.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Development, Growth, and Environmental

This chapter details a study of commodity value chain compression for coffee, cocoa, and sugar. The study uses time series data of prices along entire commodity chains from raw material in a ... More


Child Labor

Susan C. Mapp

in Global Child Welfare and Well-Being

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
September 2010
ISBN:
9780195339710
eISBN:
9780199863686
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195339710.003.0002
Subject:
Social Work, Children and Families

Reasons for children to engage in labor are discussed including poverty, gender roles and political conflict. Types of labor examined include street children, working on farms, in factories or mines, ... More


The Dynamics of the World Cocoa Price

Christopher L. Gilbert

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0016
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter constructs a data series on real cocoa prices extending back to 1850, and uses this series to model cocoa price dynamics. Cocoa prices are characterized by long (approximately 25-year) ... More


The Mochaccino Market: Coffee, Sugar, and Cocoa

Kara Newman

in The Secret Financial Life of Food: From Commodities Markets to Supermarkets

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
November 2015
ISBN:
9780231156714
eISBN:
9780231527347
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Columbia University Press
DOI:
10.7312/columbia/9780231156714.003.0006
Subject:
Economics and Finance, Economic History

This chapter reviews the history of commodity exchanges trading coffee, sugar, and cocoa. Much of the earliest trading of coffee (and other commodities) took place in coffeehouses. It is impossible ... More


Concentration and Price Transmission in the Cocoa–Chocolate Chain

Catherine Araujo Bonjean and Jean-François Brun

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0017
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The history of the chocolate industry is a long process of industrial acquisitions, mergers, and restructuring, which leads to a high degree of horizontal concentration. We explore the changes in the ... More


The Economics of Chocolate

Mara P. Squicciarini and Johan Swinnen (eds)

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.001.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This book covers the history of cocoa and chocolate from its origins in Central America to the recent consumption boom in emerging markets, as well as the growing importance of sustainable sourcing ... More


Globalization and International Commodity Trade with Specific Reference to the West African Cocoa Producers

Christopher L. Gilbert and Panos Varangis

in Challenges to Globalization: Analyzing the Economics

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
February 2013
ISBN:
9780226036151
eISBN:
9780226036557
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:
10.7208/chicago/9780226036557.003.0005
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter explores one case of primary-commodity liberalization in some detail: cocoa in West Africa. It is organized as follows. Section 4.2 discusses the economics of liberalization, while ... More


Nationalist Politicians Squander State Building Opportunities while Fleecing Cocoa Exporters in Ghana, 1945–1966

Ryan Saylor

in State Building in Boom Times: Commodities and Coalitions in Latin America and Africa

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780199364954
eISBN:
9780199364978
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199364954.003.0007
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Ghana missed state building opportunities during its postwar cocoa boom. Cocoa producers in Ghana’s cocoa heartland, Asante, were progressively marginalized by the British during decolonization, in ... More


Exporters’ Marginalization and the Persistence of Nigeria’s Weak State, 1945–1966

Ryan Saylor

in State Building in Boom Times: Commodities and Coalitions in Latin America and Africa

Published in print:
2014
Published Online:
May 2014
ISBN:
9780199364954
eISBN:
9780199364978
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199364954.003.0008
Subject:
Political Science, Comparative Politics

Nigeria’s postwar agricultural commodity booms in cocoa, groundnuts, and palm oil prompted export producers to demand new public goods. But exporters were politically marginalized and did not receive ... More


Bittersweet Harvest: The Colonial Cocoa Boom and the Tropical Forest Frontier

Corey Ross

in Ecology and Power in the Age of Empire: Europe and the Transformation of the Tropical World

Published in print:
2017
Published Online:
April 2017
ISBN:
9780199590414
eISBN:
9780191829901
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199590414.003.0003
Subject:
History, World Modern History, Social History

This chapter considers the rapid expansion of cocoa production in Europe’s tropical colonies. It outlines the development of plantation cultivation and the challenges it faced, and lays particular ... More


The Economics of Chocolate: Introduction and Overview

Mara P. Squicciarini and Johan Swinnen

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0001
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The title of the book is The Economics of Chocolate, but this volume is about more than economics in the narrow sense of the word. Instead, it addresses issues that are of interest to economists, and ... More


A Brief Economic History of Chocolate

Eline Poelmans and Johan Swinnen

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0002
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

This chapter reviews cocoa and chocolate production, consumption, and the industrial organization of chocolate making throughout history. Cocoa production and consumption was, for a long time, ... More


Sustaining Supplies in Smallholder-Dominated Value Chains: Corporate Governance of the Global Cocoa Sector

Niels Fold and Jeff Neilson

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0011
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Significant institutional transformations are occurring along the contemporary cocoa–chocolate value chain. Drawing on field research from Indonesia and Ghana, this chapter identifies the largely ... More


Beyond Fair Trade: Why are Mainstream Chocolate Companies Pursuing Social and Economic Sustainability in Cocoa Sourcing?

Stephanie Barrientos

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0012
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Fair trade has grown rapidly in cocoa under the auspices of different certification bodies, and is likely to continue as demand for certified cocoa grows. Large confectionery chocolate manufacturers ... More


Chocolate Regulations

Giulia Meloni and Johan Swinnen

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0015
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

Chocolate and cocoa have been subject to regulations and standards as long as cocoa has been cultivated and used. This chapter reviews the regulations that have been imposed on the cocoa–chocolate ... More


Hot Chocolate in the Cold: The Economics and Politics of Chocolate in the Former Soviet Union

Saule Burkitbayeva and Koen Deconinck

in The Economics of Chocolate

Published in print:
2016
Published Online:
March 2016
ISBN:
9780198726449
eISBN:
9780191793264
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726449.003.0020
Subject:
Economics and Finance, International

The Russian chocolate market is considered one of the most promising emerging chocolate markets in the world. Despite the relatively low consumption levels, Russia’s love for chocolate was already ... More


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