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Justification without Awareness: A Defense of Epistemic Externalism

Michael Bergmann

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199275748
eISBN:
9780191603907
Item type:
book
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199275742.001.0001
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

Virtually all philosophers agree that for a belief to be epistemically justified, it must satisfy certain conditions. Perhaps it must be supported by evidence, or perhaps it must be reliably formed, ... More


A Contextual Model of Moral Justification

Alan Thomas

in Value and Context: The Nature of Moral and Political Knowledge

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780198250173
eISBN:
9780191604072
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0198250177.003.0009
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This chapter develops an application of contextualism in the specific case of moral knowledge. The overall aim is the final vindication of a contextualist account of moral justification that supports ... More


Epistemic Circularity

Michael Bergmann

in Justification without Awareness: A Defense of Epistemic Externalism

Published in print:
2006
Published Online:
September 2006
ISBN:
9780199275748
eISBN:
9780191603907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0199275742.003.0007
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

One prominent objection to externalism is that it commits its adherents to approving of epistemic circularity. This chapter explains and then responds to this objection by giving two arguments for ... More


Cartesian Skeptics

Janet Broughton

in Pyrrhonian Skepticism

Published in print:
2004
Published Online:
May 2006
ISBN:
9780195169720
eISBN:
9780199786343
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/0195169727.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This essay contrasts Descartes with three skeptical figures: the Doubting Pyrrhonist, the Agrippan Pyrrhonist, and the Cartesian Skeptic. It argues that the meditator in Descartes’s Meditations is ... More


Shared We-Attitudes

Raimo Tuomela

in The Philosophy of Sociality: The Shared Point of View

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780195313390
eISBN:
9780199870929
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195313390.003.0004
Subject:
Philosophy, General

This chapter focuses on I-mode we-attitudes and develops several varieties of them. Basically, e.g. a we-goal is a goal that an agent has because the others in the group have it, under conditions of ... More


The Regress Objection

Alexander Bird

in Nature's Metaphysics: Laws and Properties

Published in print:
2007
Published Online:
September 2007
ISBN:
9780199227013
eISBN:
9780191711121
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199227013.003.0006
Subject:
Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

It is often claimed (e.g., by Swinburne, Armstrong, and Lowe) that the view that all natural properties are potencies leads to a vicious regress or circularity. The possible interpretations of this ... More


Legal officials, the rule of recognition, and international law

KEITH CULVER and MICHAEL GIUDICE

in Legality's Borders: An Essay in General Jurisprudence

Published in print:
2010
Published Online:
May 2010
ISBN:
9780195370751
eISBN:
9780199775903
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195370751.003.001
Subject:
Law, Philosophy of Law

This chapter analyzes the limits to Hart's account of an official-operated rule of recognition as an account of the existence and borders of legal systems. The argument is developed via assessment of ... More


Other Objections

Caroline Jenkins

in Grounding Concepts: An Empirical Basis for Arithmetical Knowledge

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
September 2008
ISBN:
9780199231577
eISBN:
9780191716102
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231577.003.0010
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter considers objections to the proposal of the second part of the book which are not simply objections to the claim that our arithmetical concepts are empirically grounded. These include ... More


The Spectre of “Two Dogmas”

Gillian Russell

in Truth in Virtue of Meaning: A Defence of the Analytic/Synthetic Distinction

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199232192
eISBN:
9780191715907
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199232192.003.0005
Subject:
Philosophy, Philosophy of Language

This chapter responds to the two main arguments of Quine's paper ‘Two Dogmas of Empiricism’. It argues that Chapter 2's rejection of the language myth makes it easier to understand what is good or ... More


Validity and the Unprovability of Soundness

Hartry Field

in Saving Truth From Paradox

Published in print:
2008
Published Online:
May 2008
ISBN:
9780199230747
eISBN:
9780191710933
Item type:
chapter
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230747.003.0003
Subject:
Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

This chapter gives an initial discussion of the relation between validity and necessary truth-preservation. It argues that the so-called ‘soundness theorems’ of first order logic are misnamed, and ... More


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